Clean Water for Everyone Biofilter Project Presented on November 14, 2005.
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Clean Water for Everyone Biofilter Project Presented on November 14, 2005
Problem Definition: How can we provide clean water for the people of East Africa? The real goal is clean water. Ideally, this will be by designing a portable biofilter.
Research Topics: Culture Pathogens Turbidity Purification Large and Small Particle Filtration
1. The filter must produce safe drinking water 100% of the time. 2. A simple water quality test must be available to establish the safety of the water output. 3. Components of the filter must be accessible to rural areas (either present or available in the closest urban area). 4. The filter must be able to function with manual power only. Auxiliary power, if available, could be substituted for or augment manual power. Needs:
Wants The components of the filter should be transportable by human power or animal power to areas not accessible to vehicles. The filter should be as simple to assemble, operate and maintain as possible. The filter should be scalable to adjust to the amount of water and materials available. Deployment plans for filter implementation must consider the culture and technical sophistication of the people who will be using it.
Specifications Clean Water: The water should be less than 5 NTU and filtered to a point.2 microns Source: World Health Organization Portability: The people themselves could carry the filter, whether it is one unit or is easily broken down, and put back together.
Deliverables and Constraints Deliverables: A filter which meets the needs of the project. Constraints: Simple Economical Uses native materials Reliable SAFE
Benefits Portable Easily Renewable Filters Speedy Filtration Inexpensive Risks Moving Parts Instruction Needed for Construction Not Tested CONCEPT 1: LEVER PUMP FILTER Process Dirty water enters upper reservoir Upstroke on lever arm opens inlet valve, dirty water enters pressure chamber Down stroke of lever arm closes inlet valve, presses water through multistage filtration Clean water enters clean water reservoir and stored Repeat process as many times as needed Water squirt indicator notifies user of filter exhaustion
CONCEPT 2: SLOW SAND FILTER Benefits Inexpensive Tested and Proven Simple Construction Large Volumes of Water Risks Stationary Education for Use and Maintenance Biological Layer Growth Process Water enters the pre filter for large particle filtration and turbidity filtration. Water enters the slow sand filter. Bacteria and remaining particles filtered with the Schmutzdecke and multiple layers of sand Clean drinking water exits. After time, Schmutzdecke needs to be removed and grown again. Takes about a week with proper care. SAND WATER GRAVEL
CONCEPT 3: SLOW SAND FILTER Benefits Easily Replaceable Filters Speedy Filtration Portable Risks Complicated Design Intensive Construction Not Tested Process 1.Dirty water poured into pump housing through spout 2.Turing hand crack presses water through the filter layers 3.Clean water stored in the bottom of the filter 4.Repeat as many times as needed 5.Water squirt indicator notifies user of filter exhaustion
Recommendation: Slow SandLever ArmPress Pump Risk Solutions42.52 Portability143 Safety*43*3 Cost331 Feasibility331 Design Matrix: Total: 15 15.5 10 The team is committed to designing a better method of providing East Africa with clean water. We believe that with further research, and time the Lever Arm Design can do that while still being portable. However, permanent slow sand filters are proven, reliable, and can be improved upon.
Foreseeable Threats: 1. Can we reliably detect and identify pathogens? 2.Will the coffee/clay filter work? 3.Will the filters used, meet those specifications expected?
Outlined Schedule: December: System Integration (Phase 3) January: Detail Design (Phase 4) February - March: Fabrication (Phase 5) March - April: Validation (Phase 6) End of April - Beginning of May: Delivery