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S. Mandayam/ DIP/ECE Dept./Rowan University Digital Image Processing 0909.452.01/0909.552.01 Fall 2003 Shreekanth Mandayam ECE Department Rowan University http://engineering.rowan.edu/~shreek/fall03/dip/ Lecture 4 September 29, 2003

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S. Mandayam/ DIP/ECE Dept./Rowan UniversityPlan Image Enhancement Detection of Discontinuities Edge detection (Sobel, Prewitt and Laplacian masks) Image Spectrum 2-D Fourier Transform (DFT & FFT) Spectral Filtering Lab 2: Spatial and Spectral Filtering Low-pass High-pass

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S. Mandayam/ DIP/ECE Dept./Rowan University DIP: Details

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S. Mandayam/ DIP/ECE Dept./Rowan University Image Preprocessing Enhancement Restoration Spatial Domain Spectral Domain Point Processing >>imadjust >>histeq Spatial filtering >>filter2 Filtering >>fft2/ifft2 >>fftshift Inverse filtering Wiener filtering

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S. Mandayam/ DIP/ECE Dept./Rowan University Spatial Filtering (Masking) R w1w1 w2w2 w3w3 w4w4 w5w5 w6w6 w7w7 w8w8 w9w9 z1z1 z2z2 z3z3 z4z4 z5z5 z6z6 z7z7 z8z8 z9z9 Portion of a digital image Mask = w 1 z 1 + w 2 z 2 + ….. +w 9 z 9 Replace with

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S. Mandayam/ DIP/ECE Dept./Rowan University Edge Detection -2 0 00 1 21 Sobel Masks 0 1 -2 02 01 >>edgedemo >>edge demos/demo2spatial_filtering/edgegradientdemo.m

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S. Mandayam/ DIP/ECE Dept./Rowan University Recall: 1-D CFT Continuous Fourier Transform (CFT) Frequency, [Hz] Amplitude Spectrum Phase Spectrum Inverse Fourier Transform (IFT)

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S. Mandayam/ DIP/ECE Dept./Rowan University Recall: 1-D DFT Discrete Domains Discrete Time: k = 0, 1, 2, 3, …………, N-1 Discrete Frequency:n = 0, 1, 2, 3, …………, N-1 Discrete Fourier Transform Inverse DFT Equal time intervals Equal frequency intervals n = 0, 1, 2,….., N-1 k = 0, 1, 2,….., N-1

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S. Mandayam/ DIP/ECE Dept./Rowan University How to get the frequency axis in the DFT The DFT operation just converts one set of number, x[k] into another set of numbers X[n] - there is no explicit definition of time or frequency How can we relate the DFT to the CFT and obtain spectral amplitudes for discrete frequencies? (N-point FFT) n=0 1 2 3 4 n=N f=0 f = f s Need to know f s

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S. Mandayam/ DIP/ECE Dept./Rowan University DFT Properties DFT is periodic X[n] = X[n+N] = X[n+2N] = ……… I-DFT is also periodic! x[k] = x[k+N] = x[k+2N] = ………. Where are the “low” and “high” frequencies on the DFT spectrum? n=0 N/2 n=N f=0 f s /2 f = f s

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S. Mandayam/ DIP/ECE Dept./Rowan University 1-D FFT Demo >>fft http://engineering.rowan.edu/~shreek/spring03 /ecomms/demos/dft.m

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S. Mandayam/ DIP/ECE Dept./Rowan University 2-D Continuous Fourier Transform Spatial Domain Spatial Frequency Domain v u y x

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S. Mandayam/ DIP/ECE Dept./Rowan University 2-D Discrete Fourier Transform >>fft2 >>ifft2 u=0 u=N/2 u=N v=N v=N/2 v=0

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S. Mandayam/ DIP/ECE Dept./Rowan University 2-D DFT Properties Conjugate symmetry demos/demo3dft_properties/con_symm_and_trans.m Rotation demos/demo3dft_properties/rotation.m Separability demos/demo3dft_properties/separability.m >>fftshift

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S. Mandayam/ DIP/ECE Dept./Rowan University Spectral Filtering: Radially Symmetric Filter Low-pass Filter demos/demo4freq_filtering/lowpass.m u=-N/2 u=0 u=N/2 v=N/2 v=0 v=-N/2 D0D0 D(u,v)

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S. Mandayam/ DIP/ECE Dept./Rowan University Lab 2: Spatial & Spectral Filtering http://engineering.rowan.edu/~shreek/fall03/dip/lab2.html

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S. Mandayam/ DIP/ECE Dept./Rowan UniversitySummary

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