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Chapter 3 The Relational Model Transparencies © Pearson Education Limited 1995, 2005
2 Chapter 3 - Objectives u Terminology of relational model. u How tables are used to represent data. u Properties of database relations. u How to identify CK, PK, and FKs. u Meaning of entity integrity and referential integrity. u Purpose and advantages of views. © Pearson Education Limited 1995, 2005
3 Relational Model Terminology u A relation is a table with columns and rows. –Only applies to logical structure of the database, not the physical structure. u Attribute is a named column of a relation. u Domain is the set of allowable values for one or more attributes. © Pearson Education Limited 1995, 2005
4 Relational Model Terminology u Tuple is a row of a relation. u Degree is the number of attributes in a relation. u Cardinality is the number of tuples in a relation. u Relational Database is a collection of normalized relations with distinct relation names. © Pearson Education Limited 1995, 2005
5 Instances of Branch and Staff Relations © Pearson Education Limited 1995, 2005
6 Examples of Attribute Domains © Pearson Education Limited 1995, 2005
7 Alternative Terminology for Relational Model © Pearson Education Limited 1995, 2005
8 Database Relations u Relation schema –Named relation defined by a set of attribute and domain name pairs. u Relational database schema –Set of relation schemas, each with a distinct name. © Pearson Education Limited 1995, 2005
9 Properties of Relations u Relation name is distinct from all other relation names in relational schema. u Each cell of relation contains exactly one atomic (single) value. u Each attribute has a distinct name. u Values of an attribute are all from the same domain. © Pearson Education Limited 1995, 2005
10 Properties of Relations u Each tuple is distinct; there are no duplicate tuples. u Order of attributes has no significance. u Order of tuples has no significance, theoretically. © Pearson Education Limited 1995, 2005
11 Relational Keys u Superkey –An attribute, or set of attributes, that uniquely identifies a tuple within a relation. u Candidate Key –Superkey (K) such that no proper subset is a superkey within the relation. –In each tuple of R, values of K uniquely identify that tuple (uniqueness). –No proper subset of K has the uniqueness property (irreducibility). © Pearson Education Limited 1995, 2005
12 Relational Keys u Primary Key –Candidate key selected to identify tuples uniquely within relation. u Alternate Keys –Candidate keys that are not selected to be primary key. u Foreign Key –Attribute, or set of attributes, within one relation that matches candidate key of some (possibly same) relation. © Pearson Education Limited 1995, 2005
13 Integrity Constraints u Null –Represents value for an attribute that is currently unknown or not applicable for tuple. –Deals with incomplete or exceptional data. –Represents the absence of a value and is not the same as zero or spaces, which are values. © Pearson Education Limited 1995, 2005
14 Integrity Constraints u Entity Integrity –In a base relation, no attribute of a primary key can be null. u Referential Integrity –If foreign key exists in a relation, either foreign key value must match a candidate key value of some tuple in its home relation or foreign key value must be wholly null. © Pearson Education Limited 1995, 2005
15 Integrity Constraints u General Constraints –Additional rules specified by users or database administrators that define or constrain some aspect of the enterprise. © Pearson Education Limited 1995, 2005
16 Views u Base Relation –Named relation corresponding to an entity in conceptual schema, whose tuples are physically stored in database. u View –Dynamic result of one or more relational operations operating on base relations to produce another relation. © Pearson Education Limited 1995, 2005
17 Views u A virtual relation that does not necessarily actually exist in the database but is produced upon request, at time of request. u Contents of a view are defined as a query on one or more base relations. u Views are dynamic, meaning that changes made to base relations that affect view attributes are immediately reflected in the view. © Pearson Education Limited 1995, 2005
18 Purpose of Views u Provides powerful and flexible security mechanism by hiding parts of database from certain users. u Permits users to access data in a customized way, so that same data can be seen by different users in different ways, at same time. u Can simplify complex operations on base relations. © Pearson Education Limited 1995, 2005
19 Updating Views u All updates to a base relation should be immediately reflected in all views that reference that base relation. u If view is updated, underlying base relation should reflect change. © Pearson Education Limited 1995, 2005
20 Updating Views u There are restrictions on types of modifications that can be made through views: –Updates are allowed if query involves a single base relation and contains a candidate key of base relation. –Updates are not allowed involving multiple base relations. –Updates are not allowed involving aggregation or grouping operations. © Pearson Education Limited 1995, 2005
21 Updating Views u Classes of views are defined as: –theoretically not updateable; –theoretically updateable; –partially updateable. © Pearson Education Limited 1995, 2005
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