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1.2.1a Your body and the effects on participation

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1 1.2.1a Your body and the effects on participation
Learning objectives To be able to define the terms overfat, overweight, obese, underweight and anorexia. To body mass index and the affect of weight on performance. To understand the different body somatotypes and the influence on performance. To describe ways of measuring fat and muscle in the body.

2 Somatotypes Somatotyping is a method of determining an individuals body shape Body shape is determined genetically (born with it). It can be improved but not dramatically changed

3 3 Basic Somatotypes ENDOMORPH (Fat) MESOMORPH (Muscular)
Wide hips and Narrow shoulders Shot putters, sumo wrestlers. MESOMORPH (Muscular) Narrow hips and broad shoulders Tennis, rugby, sprinters & swimmers ECTOMORPH (Thin) Narrow hips and shoulders High jumper, marathon runner

4 Somatotypes Somatotype is important, it may mean that you are better suited to one sport more than another. Many people are a normal shape – not an extreme body type. You can be a mixture of body types.

5 Body Weight There is a clear link between calorie intake, exercise levels and weight. Every person has an optimum weight. This depends on a number of factors: Height Gender Bone structure

6 Body Weight Some athletes need to maintain their weight carefully
(i.e. boxers and jockeys) The table shows a weight guide based on height

7 Overweight A person who is significantly heavier than their optimum weight is classed as overweight. - “having weight in excess of normal” Extra weight can be in the form of muscle mass.

8 Overfat However, if the extra weight is in the form of fat, then the person is classed as overfat. - “is an abnormally large percentage of their body is composed of fat” This can lead to: -High blood pressure -Strokes -Heart attacks

9 Obesity Obese people are people who are extremely overfat.
Men are obese if more than 25% of their body is fat. Women are obese if more than 30% of their body is fat. Obesity is very damaging to health and the risk of diabetes, high blood pressure and heart disease are much GREATER.

10 Underweight People who are underweight are 10% under optimum weight.
This can lead to: -Women have irregular periods -Can lead to malnutrition -Poor health -Energy drain Weight loss should be gradual and realistic. Dieticians will oversee weight loss and ensure it is safe.

11 Anorexia Excessive weight loss can lead to a disorder called anorexia nervosa. Individuals with anorexia do not eat because they see themselves as fat. There mind state means they dramatically reduce their food intake. Anorexia can also be linked with depression and can result in kidney damage and even death.

12 Body mass index (BMI) BMI is a general way of working out whether a person is the right weight for their height. Use the following formula: BMI = Weight (kg) Height (m) x Height (m) TASK: Calculate your BMI.

13 Body mass index (BMI) Generally the higher the BMI the more % body fat, but elite athletes with have a high % body mass due to muscle weighing more than fat.

14 How would body weight affect participation in sport?
TASK: Think with the person next to you

15 How would body weight affect participation in sport?
Fatigue quickly Speed when playing/speed of movement Strength levels Flexibility may be affected The need for more weight in certain activities i.e. Rugby prop

16 Measuring the body To assess suitability for as particular sport you can measuring the ratio of the body. Fat levels vary depending on age and gender. Measuring fat levels can be done with skin fold callipers. Measuring muscles should be done when the muscle is flexed. TASK: Pupils to measure skin fold and muscle girths

17 What Somatotype Plenary?



20 Past exam questions: (g) (i) What body type would you expect a successful female gymnast to have? (1) (ii) Explain your answer. (i) (ii) Ectomorph/ecto - mesomorph allow mesomorph (if qualified in part ii) Light body weight to allow successful completion of moves. Sufficient muscle to generate power for required moves

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