REFERENCES & BIBLIOGRAPHIES COLIN NEVILLE EFFECTIVE LEARNING SERVICE.
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REFERENCES & BIBLIOGRAPHIES COLIN NEVILLE EFFECTIVE LEARNING SERVICE
Persuasion The persuasive power of words was discussed by Aristotle around 350 BC. He presented an analysis of rhetorical strategies, which included three elements: logos, pathos and ethos:
Logos Logos are appeals to reason and an attempt to persuade the audience (or reader) through sound reasoning. This will be done by the presentation of reliable evidence, usually in the form of facts, definitions, statistics and other data that appeals to the logic and intelligence of the audience.
Pathos Pathos is concerned with an appeal to the emotions of the reader or audience. The speaker or writer will attempt to induce a particular state of mind in the audience (or reader), which can include anger, understanding, sympathy, tolerance; it will tap into the sentiment or feelings of the audience or readership.
Ethos Ethos is the appeal of the speaker or writer to the audience or readership, in terms of his or her credibility and experience. The writer or speaker will present, directly or indirectly, a profile that sets a stamp of authority on the words used to persuade.
Referencing Referencing is a way of uniting both the logos and ethos elements of writing. It gives credibility (ethos) to you as a writer and brings authority (logos) to your writing. It helps turn opinion into argument. Including references is a way of demonstrating your knowledge of a subject It also acknowledges the work of others who have contributed to knowledge
WHAT ARE REFERENCES & BIBLIOGRAPHIES ? REFERENCES: The sources of things you have read (heard or watched) and that you want to refer to specifically in your essays or reports BIBLIOGRAPHIES A list of everything you have read for the assignment, whether or not you have made specific reference to it in your writing
WHY USE REFERENCES IN ESSAYS & REPORTS? To give the reader the source of statistics & other data To add support to your own arguments or point of view To refer the reader to the source of a quotation or definition To acknowledge a specific writer who has influenced your own thinking, or whose ideas you have summarised or paraphrased To give the reader the source of any significant information you have summarised or paraphrased and therefore avoid plagiarism.
YOU DON’T NEED TO REFERENCE 1.Information drawn from a variety of sources to summarise what has happened over a period of time and when the summary is unlikely to be a cause of dispute or controversy 2.When pulling together a range of key ideas that you introduced and referenced earlier in the assignment 3.When stating or summarising generally undisputed facts circulating freely in the public domain and when there is unlikely to be any significant disagreement with your statements or summaries of these.
REFERENCING We use the HARVARD SYSTEM in the School of Management This involves citing the source (e.g. an author or name of a source organisation) as you write. The HARVARD SYSTEM is relatively easy to learn and use in assignments
CITATIONS & REFERENCES A citation is a partial reference that you include in the main body of your assignment. A reference is the full details of the source that is included in the ‘References’ or ‘Bibliography’ section, which you should include at the end of your assignment.
HARVARD SYSTEM: Basic Idea Your Citation in the text will be a shortened or partial reference, e.g. (Handy 1994) Then, in your References or Bibliography section at the end of the assignment, the reference should be in a certain order: 1.Author’s last name, then initials (or name of organisation) 2.Date of publication 3.Title information (in full) (italics or underlined) 4.Publisher information (or website details)
EXAMPLE OF CITATIONS IN AN ESSAY: Although Handy (1994) has argued that education is the key to economic success for individuals, organisations and nations, a majority of adults in the UK have yet to be convinced or persuaded of this argument. In 1999 only forty per cent of adults had participated in any sort of formal learning in the previous three years. Of these, a significant majority was from social class groups A, B and C. Only a quarter of adults from semi-skilled or unskilled work backgrounds had involved themselves in formal education (Tuckett 1999). The consequences for people without qualifications who lose their jobs are often serious. A study of long-term unemployed people in Yorkshire found that sixty-one per cent had no educational qualifications, and a significant number of these had special learning needs. (Y&HES 1998). There would appear to be a link too, between lack of qualifications, poor health and a disengagement from participation in political or civic life, and could aggravate the situation of unemployment for the people concerned (Hagen 2002).
EXAMPLE OF A ‘REFERENCES’ SECTION AT END OF AN ASSIGNMENT: REFERENCES Hagen, J. (2002). Basic Skills for Adults. Birmingham: The Guidance Council. Handy, C. (1994). The Empty Raincoat. London: Hutchinson. Tuckett, A.(1999). ‘Who’s Learning What?’ The Guardian 18/5/1999, p. 13. Y&HES: Yorkshire and Humber Employment Service (1998). Survey of Clients Aged 25+ Unemployed for Two Years or More. London: Department for Education and Employment.
YOUR LIST OF REFERENCES : You have just one list – in alphabetical order (using the last name of the author or name of organisation) You DON’T have separate lists for different types of source, e.g. books, articles, internet sources etc – you record all your sources in one long list of references
A BOOK REFERENCE 1.Authors family name or last name is listed first, followed by his or her initials 2.Next comes the year of publication, 3.Third, the book title 4.Fourthly, the place it was published, 5.Finally, the name of the publisher
EXAMPLE OF A BOOK CITATION & REFERENCE: Citation in the text: (Handy 1994) Full Reference at the end of the assignment: Handy, C. (1994). The Empty Raincoat: Making Sense of the Future. London: Hutchinson.
CITING FROM ARTICLES IN JOURNALS 1.Last name/family name, then initials 2.Year of publication (in brackets) 3.Title of article 4.Name of journal Volume or edition number, or specific date of publication 5.Page number (s)
EXAMPLE OF CITING & REFERENCING AN ARTICLE IN A JOURNAL Citation: (Lucas 2006) Reference: Lucas, E. (2006). ‘Good Managers: Born or Made? Professional Manager. Vol.15, issue 4, pp.26-29.
REFERENCING ELECTRONIC SOURCES (e.g. Internet) If there is a person or people named, give the name(s) in same way as before, e.g. last name/family name first, then initials Title of any book or heading given Give full internet site location (full www address) Date you went to the site
EXAMPLES OF CITING & REFERENCING AN INTERNET SOURCE: Citation : (Ellison & Barry 2003) Reference: Ellison, P.T. & Barry, R.E. (2001). ‘Business English for the 21 st Century’, 2 nd Edition. Available at http://cwx.prenhall.com/bookbind/pubbook s/ellison/ (Accessed 3 rd October 2003).
INTERNET SOURCES (continued) If a specific author’s name(s) is not shown, then cite the name of any publication shown & date of publication (if given), You don’t cite the website address. In the References section start with the name of the organisation, date shown on the site for publication (if any), title of article/sub-heading of screen, then the full URL address, and then date you went to the site, e.g. Office for National Statistics (2002). ‘The Jobs People Do’. www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id=11, (accessed 05/07/2004).
CITING & REFERENCING COURSE NOTES Citation: You would normally cite the lecturer’s last name & year course notes were produced, e.g. (Low 2004) Reference: Low, C. (2004). Marketing Communications, from MA Course Manual, 2004/5, p.2. University of Bradford, School of Management.
PLAGIARISM To knowingly take or use another person’s work and claim it, directly or indirectly, to be your own.
THERE ARE THREE MAIN FORMS OF PLAGIARISM: 1.Copying, summarising or paraphrasing words from a source straight into your assignment without acknowledging the source 2.Copying another student’s work and then claiming or pretending it to be your own. It is also plagiarism if you allow another student to copy your work. 3.Colluding with other students and submitting identical or near identical work
HOW TO AVOID PLAGIARISM (1): By summarizing or paraphrasing in your own words, as best you can, another person’s work, and by giving acknowledgement to that person in your assignment. This acknowledgement is done by citing your sources in the text of your assignments and listing all your sources in a references or bibliography section at the end of the assignment.
What’s the difference between paraphrasing & summarising? Summarising … is writing focused on the general When you want to include only the main ideas from the broad sweep of another author's work. This normally happens when you want to include the main ideas from whole pages of another author's work, or even the main ideas of the book or source in question. You use your own words as best you can. Paraphrasing …is writing focused on the particular When you want to include all the ideas of another author from a particular sentence or paragraph, but do not feel the need to include the author's actual words. You are not changing the essential content, but rather rewording the original. Paraphrasing includes: Isolating the essential ideas in the text Restructuring the sentences, changing the syntax and form of words Using similar or related words where suitable