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Transactional Memory Yujia Jin. Lock and Problems Lock is commonly used with shared data Priority Inversion –Lower priority process hold a lock needed.

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Presentation on theme: "Transactional Memory Yujia Jin. Lock and Problems Lock is commonly used with shared data Priority Inversion –Lower priority process hold a lock needed."— Presentation transcript:

1 Transactional Memory Yujia Jin

2 Lock and Problems Lock is commonly used with shared data Priority Inversion –Lower priority process hold a lock needed by a higher priority process Convoy Effect –When lock holder is interrupted, other is forced to wait Deadlock –Circular dependence between different processes acquiring locks, so everyone just wait for locks

3 Lock-free Shared data structure is lock-free if its operations do not require mutual exclusion - Will not prevent multiple processes operating on the same object + avoid lock problems - Existing lock-free techniques use software and do not perform well against lock counterparts

4 Transactional Memory Use transaction style operations to operate on lock free data Allow user to customized read-modify- write operation on multiple, independent words Easy to support with hardware, straight forward extensions to conventional multiprocessor cache

5 Transaction Style A finite sequence of machine instruction with –Sequence of reads, –Computation, –Sequence of write and –Commit Formal properties –Atomicity, Serializability (~ACID)

6 Access Instructions Load-transactional (LT) –Reads from shared memory into private register Load-transactional-exclusive (LTX) –LT + hinting write is coming up Store-transactional (ST) –Tentatively write from private register to shared memory, new value is not visible to other processors till commit

7 State Instructions Commit –Tries to make tentative write permanent. –Successful if no other processor read its read set or write its write set –When fails, discard all updates to write set –Return the whether successful or not Abort –Discard all updates to write set Validate –Return current transaction status –If current status is false, discard all updates to write set

8 Typical Transaction /* keep trying */ While ( true ) { /* read variables */ v1 = LT ( V1 ); …; vn = LT ( Vn ); /* check consistency */ if ( ! VALIDATE () ) continue; /* compute new values */ compute ( v1, …, vn); /* write tentative values */ ST (v1, V1); … ST(vn, Vn); /* try to commit */ if ( COMMIT () ) return result; else backoff; }

9 Warning… Not intended for database use Transactions are short in time Transactions are small in dataset

10 Idea Behind Implementation Existing cache protocol detects accessibility conflicts Accessibility conflicts ~ transaction conflicts Can extended to cache coherent protocols –Includes bus snoopy, directory

11 Bus Snoopy Example processor Regular cache 2048 8-byte lines Direct mapped Transaction cache 64 8-byte lines Fully associative bus Caches are exclusive Transaction cache contains tentative writes without propagating them to other processors

12 Transaction Cache Cache line contains separate transactional tag in addition to coherent protocol tag –Transactional tag state: empty, normal, xcommit, xabort Two entries per transaction –Modification write to xabort, set to empty when abort –Xcommit contains the original, set to empty when commits Allocation policy order in decreasing favor –Empty entries, normal entries, xcommit entries Must guarantee a minimum transaction size

13 Bus Actions T_READ and T_RFO(read for ownership) are added for transactional requests Transactional request can be refused by responding BUSY When BUSY response is received, transaction is aborted –This prevents deadlock and continual mutual aborts –Can subject to starvation

14 Processor Actions Transaction active (TACTIVE) flag indicate whether a transaction is in progress, set on first transactional operation Transaction status (TSTATUS) flag indicate whether a transaction is aborted

15 LT Actions Check for XABORT entry If false, check for NORMAL entry –Switch NORMAL to XABORT and allocate XCOMMIT If false, issue T_READ on bus, then allocate XABORT and XCOMMIT If T_READ receive BUSY, abort –Set TSTATUS to false –Drop all XABORT entries –Set all XCOMMIT entries to NORMAL –Return random data

16 LTX and ST Actions Same as LT Except –Use T_RFO on a miss rather than T_READ –For ST, XABORT entry is updated

17 More Exciting Actions VALIDATE –Return TSTATUS flag –If false, set TSTATUS true, TACTIVE false ABORT –Update cache, set TSTATUS true, TACTIVE false COMMIT –Return TSTATUS, set TSTATUS true, TACTIVE false –Drops all XCOMMIT and changes all XABORT to NORMAL

18 Snoopy Cache Actions Regular cache acts like MESI invalidate, treats READ same as T_READ, RFO same as T_RFO Transactional cache –Non-transactional cycle: Acts like regular cache with NORMAL entries only –T_READ: If the the entry is valid (share), returns the value –All other cycle: BUSY

19 Simulation Proteus Simulator 32 processors Regular cache –Direct mapped, 2048 8-byte lines Transactional cache –Fully associative, 64 8-byte lines Single cycle caches access 4 cycle memory access Both snoopy bus and directory are simulated 2 stage network with switch delay of 1 cycle each

20 Benchmarks Counter –n processors, each increment a shared counter (2^16)/n times Producer/Consumer buffer –n/2 processors produce, n/2 processor consume through a shared FIFO –end when 2^16 items are consumed Doubly-linked list –N processors tries to rotate the content from tail to head –End when 2^16 items are moved –Variables shared are conditional –Traditional locking method can introduce deadlock

21 Comparisons Competitors –Transactional memory –Load-locked/store-cond (Alpha) –Spin lock with backoff –Software queue –Hardware queue

22 Counter Result

23 Producer/Consumer Result

24 Doubly Linked List Result

25 Conclusion Avoid extra lock variable and lock problems Trade dead lock for possible live lock/starvation Comparable performance to lock technique when shared data structure is small Relatively easy to implement

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