Presentation on theme: "LEARNING OBJECTIVES/ GOALS/ SWBAT"— Presentation transcript:
1 LEARNING OBJECTIVES/ GOALS/ SWBAT STANDARD(S): 12.1 Students explain the fundamental principles and moral values of American democracy.LEARNING OBJECTIVES/ GOALS/ SWBATIdentify the Framers of the Constitution and discuss how they organized the Philadelphia Convention.Compare and contrast the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan.Summarize the convention’s major compromises and the effects of those decisions.Describe the delegates’ reactions to the Constitution.
2 A BULLDOG ALWAYSCommitmentAttitudeCARESRespectEncouragementSafety
3 Chapter 2: Origins of American Government Section 4
4 Key TermsFramers: the individuals who attended the Philadelphia ConventionVirginia Plan: a plan offered at the Convention that called for a central government with three branches, with each state’s representation in a bicameral legislature based mainly on populationNew Jersey Plan: a plan calling for a central government with a unicameral legislature and equal representation of all the states.
5 Key Terms, cont.Connecticut Compromise: an agreement to divide Congress into two houses, one with representation based on state population and one with equal representation for all statesThree-Fifths Compromise: an agreement to count each slave as three fifths of a person when determining state populationCommerce and Slave Trade Compromise: an agreement forbidding Congress from taxing state exports or interfering with the slave trade for at least 20 years
6 IntroductionWhat compromises enabled the Framers to create the Constitution?The Connecticut CompromiseThis compromise dealt with how to determine the representation of states in the national legislature.The Three-Fifths CompromiseThis compromise dealt with issues arising from slavery.The Commerce and Slave Trade CompromiseThis compromise addressed northern and southern disagreements about foreign trade.
7 The FramersThe Constitutional Convention began on May 25, 1787, with 55 delegates.These individuals, called the Framers, came from many backgrounds:Many had fought in the Revolutionary War.Eight had signed the Declaration of Independence.34 had attended college at a time when it was a rare achievement.Two would become President, one a Vice President, nineteen a U.S. Senator, and thirteen a member of the House of Representatives.
8 A New GovernmentThe Framers elected George Washington as president of the convention and set up procedural rules.A majority of state delegations would need to be present to conduct business.Each delegation would have one vote.A majority vote would carry a proposal.NOTE TO TEACHERS: The above image depicts George Washington, who was president of the Constitutional Convention.
9 A New Government, cont.Then, on May 30th, the Framers made their biggest decision: to replace the Articles of Confederation rather than amend them.James Madison (right) was a major figure in the movement to replace the Constitution.
10 A New Government, cont. Not At the Meeting John Adams – diplomatic missionThomas Jefferson – diplomatic missionSamuel Adams – I smell a rat.Benjamin Franklyn"Give me liberty, or give me death!"
11 The Virginia PlanThis plan called for a government with a legislative, executive, and judicial branch.Congress would have two houses, with representation based on state population or the money given to the central government.Congress would have more power than it had under the Articles.It would be able to force states to obey federal law.(The members of) Congress would elect a national executive and judiciary.These two branches would form a council that could veto acts passed by Congress.
12 Guided Reading 1. three separate branches, bicameral legislature, Plan or CompromiseProvisionsType of States That BenefitedVirginia Plan1. three separate branches,bicameral legislature,representation based on population or wealth of State,lower house popularly elected,upper house chosen by States,veto power over State laws,Congress chooses executive and judiciary,veto power of executive and judiciary over Congress2. large States and wealthy States
13 The New Jersey PlanThis plan proposed a much different organization of the three branches.Congress would have a single house with equal representation for each state.This Congress would have more limited powers than under the Virginia Plan.There would be an executive committee of several people, chosen by Congress.At the request of a majority of state governors, Congress could remove members of this committee.The executive committee would appoint a supreme tribunal to be the federal judiciary.
14 Guided Reading 3. unicameral legislature, States equally represented, Plan or CompromiseProvisionsType of States That BenefitedNew Jersey Plan3. unicameral legislature,States equally represented,limited power to tax and regulate trade,more than one executive chosen by legislature,State governors could remove executive,judiciary appointed by executive4. small States
15 Connecticut Compromise Checkpoint: What was the Connecticut Compromise?Small states feared that larger states would dominate them under the Virginia Plan.The Connecticut Compromise, also called the Great Compromise, solved this dispute.In the House of Representatives, each state would be represented according to its population.In the Senate, each state would have equal representation.Checkpoint Answer: The combining of elements of the Virginia and New Jersey Plans to create a bicameral federal Congress in which state representation in the Senate would be equal while representation in the House of Representatives would be based upon state population.
16 Guided Reading 5. bicameral Congress Plan or CompromiseProvisionsType of States That BenefitedConnecticutCompromise5. bicameral Congresswith membership in House based on populationand in Senate based on equal numbers for each State6. all States
17 Additional Compromises Southern states wanted to count slaves as part of the state population. Northern states did not.The Three-Fifths Compromisecounted each slave as three-fifths of a person when figuring representation in Congress.Southern states got more representativesNorthern states benefited from the taxes the south paid.
19 Guided ReadingPlan or CompromiseProvisionsType of States That BenefitedThree-FifthsCompromise7. In northern States both taxes and representation were based on population;Southerners could add three-fifths of the enslaved toward representation, but they also had to count them toward taxes owed to the National Government.8. southern States for population count,northern States for taxation
20 Additional Compromises, cont. Southern states wanted to protect their agricultural exports and the slave trade from regulation by Congress.Under the Commerce and Slave Trade Compromise,Congress could not tax state exports or interfere with the slave trade until 1808.Southern states
21 The Issue of SlaveryDisputes over slavery during the Convention arose because slavery was far more common in the agricultural South than in the more industrial North.However, slavery was legal in every states except Massachusetts.What group had its interests ignored?
22 Guided Reading 9. Congress was forbidden to tax exports and Plan or CompromiseProvisionsType of States That BenefitedCommerce andSlave TradeCompromise9. Congress was forbidden to tax exportsandto pass laws against slave trade for at least 20 years.10. southern States
24 Guided Reading11. Name a group whose interests seem to have been ignored, or even harmed, by the compromises that created the Constitution.enslaved African Americans
25 A Bundle of Compromises Checkpoint: Why was the Constitution called a “bundle of compromises”?The Framers had to resolve disputes involving such issues as:The exact structure of the new governmentRegional differences among the statesThe method of choosing the PresidentHow to amend the ConstitutionThe limits on federal powersThe Constitution they approved on September 17, 1787, has thus been called a “bundle of compromises.”Checkpoint Answer: Because the Framers had to make a number of compromises about many specific details of how the new government would function in order to gain enough votes to approve the document.
26 Guided Reading B. Reviewing Key Terms On a separate sheet of paper, use the key term below in a sentence that shows the meaning of the term.12. FramersSentences should indicate that Framers were delegates to the Philadelphia Convention, and authors of the Constitution.
27 ReviewNow that you have learned what compromises enabled the Framers to create the Constitution, go back and answer the Chapter Essential Question.How does the Constitution reflect the times in which it was written?
28 Guided Reading B. Reviewing Key Terms Plan or Compromise Provisions Type of States That BenefitedVirginia Planthree separate branches, bicameral legislature, representation based on population or wealth of State, lower house popularly elected, upper house chosen by States, veto power over State laws, Congress chooses executive and judiciary, veto power of executive and judiciary over Congresslarge States and wealthy StatesNew Jersey Planunicameral legislature, States equally represented, limited power to tax and regulate trade, more than one executive chosen by legislature, State governors could remove executive, judiciary appointed by executivesmall StatesConnecticutCompromisebicameral Congress with membership in House based on population and in Senate based on equal numbers for each Stateall StatesThree-FifthsIn northern States both taxes and representation were based on population; Southerners could add three-fifths of the enslaved toward representation, but they also had to count them toward taxes owed to the National Government.southern States for population count, northern States for taxationCommerce andSlave TradeCongress was forbidden to tax exports and to pass laws against slave trade for at least 20 years.southern States11. Name a group whose interests seem to have been ignored, or even harmed, by the compromises that created the Constitution.enslaved African AmericansB. Reviewing Key TermsOn a separate sheet of paper, use the key term below in a sentence that shows the meaning of the term.12. FramersSentences should indicate that Framers were delegates to the Philadelphia Convention, and authors of the Constitution.