Presentation on theme: " What is a solution? What are the differences between unsaturated, saturated, and supersaturated solutions? What are some of the general properties."— Presentation transcript:
What is a solution? What are the differences between unsaturated, saturated, and supersaturated solutions? What are some of the general properties of an acid? What are some of the general properties of a base? What is a neutralization reaction? What is the pH scale? How is pH used to describe the concentration of acids and bases?
PSc.2.2.6 ◦ Recognize common inorganic acids including hydrochloric (muriatic) acid, sulfuric acid, acetic acid, nitric acid and citric acid. ◦ Recognize common bases including sodium bicarbonate, and hydroxides of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, barium and ◦ ammonium. ◦ Define acids and bases according to the Arrhenius theory. ◦ Develop an understanding of the pH scale and the classification of substances therein. ◦ Generalize common characteristics of acids and bases– pH range, reactivity with metals and carbonates (acids) or fats/oils (bases), ◦ conductivity. ◦ Relate general household uses of acids and bases with their characteristic properties. ◦ Explain what happens in a neutralization reaction, identifying each component substance.
Solution: A type of homogeneous mixture formed when one substance dissolves in another. There are two parts to a solution 1.Solute – the substance that is dissolved. 2.Solvent – the substance that causes the other to dissolve. (Water is usually the solvent.) Example: Lemonade What part of the lemonade is the solute? lemon juice and sugar What part of the lemonade is the solvent? water
Solubility: The maximum amount of a solute that can be dissolved in a given amount of solvent at a given temperature. Soluble – anything that dissolves in another substance. ◦ Ex: Salt is soluble in water. Insoluble – anything that does not dissolve in another substance. ◦ Ex: Oil is insoluble in water.
If you continue adding sugar to lemonade, eventually the point is reached when no more sugar dissolves and the excess granules sink to the bottom of the glass.
Unsaturated – more solute can be dissolved in the solvent Saturated – no more solute can be dissolved in the solvent at the current temperature. Generally, as the temperature of a liquid solvent increases, the amount of solid solute that can dissolve in it also increases.
Supersaturated –contains more solute than a saturated solution at the same temperature. ◦ Ex: Rock Candy is made in this way.
Solubility Curve Each line on the graph is called a solubility curve for a particular substance. You can use a solubility curve to figure out how much solute will dissolve at any temperature given on the graph.
1. A(n) __________ solution is any solution that can dissolve more solute at a given temperature. A. electrolyte B. saturated C. supersaturated D. unsaturated The answer is D. A saturated solution contains all the solute it can hold at that temperature, but an unsaturated solution can hold additional solute.
2. What is a solubility curve used for? Answer: You can use a solubility curve to figure out how much solute will dissolve at any temperature given on the graph.
3. The substance being dissolved in a solution is the __________. A. aqueous phase B. media C. solute D. solvent Answer is C. The solute dissolves into the solvent
An acid is defined by Arrhenius as a substance that dissociates to produce hydrogen ions (H + ) in a water solution. HCl → H + + Cl -
Contains hydrogen Taste sour Reacts with metals to form hydrogen gas Reacts with carbonates to form carbon dioxide, water and a salt Corrode metals Electrolytes pH is less than 7 Turns blue litmus paper to red Mg + 2HCl MgCl 2 + H 2 Na 2 CO 3 + 2HCl CO 2 + H 2 O + 2NaCl Conducts Electricity
HCl (hydrochloric acid) - gastric juice H 2 SO 4 (sulfuric acid) - fertilizer, car batteries HC 2 H 3 O 2 (acetic acid) - vinegar HNO 3 (nitric acid) - fertilizers H 3 C 6 H 5 O 7 (citric acid) – fruits Other common uses: dyes, paints, food preservation & preparation
A base is defined by Arrhenius as a substance that produces hydroxide ions OH - in a water solution. NaOH → Na + + OH -
Contains OH - Taste bitter Electrolytes Feel soapy, slippery pH greater than 7 Turns red litmus paper to blue Reacts with fats/oils to produce soaps Conducts Electricity
1. The pH of an acidic solution is a. Less than 0.c. Less than 7. b. Greater than 14.d. Greater than 7. 2. A solution whose pH is 7 a. Is acidic. c. Is neutral. b. Is basic. d. Is none of the others. 3. Solubility is the _____ amount of a _____ that can be dissolved in a given amount of ______ at a given temperature. a. Least, solute, solvent b. Max, solute, solvent c. Least, solvent, solute d. Max, solvent, solute Warm-Up - Write the questions
pH ◦ The pH scale is used to determine how acidic or basic a solution is. ◦ measured with a pH meter or an indicator with a wide color range. (Litmus Paper) ◦ Ranges from 0 to 14 ◦ 7 is neutral
1.The substance being dissolved is called _________. 2.The substance doing the dissolving is called __________. 3.A solution is a ______________ mixture. 4.A solution that can dissolve more. _________ 5.A solution that can dissolved no more. ___________ 6.A solution that has dissolved more than normal. ________________
7.Substances that in solutions have H + (hydrogen) ions are… 8.Acids produce what in water solution? 9.The acid in oranges. 10.The acids in fertilizers. 11.The acid in your stomach. 13.Solutions that have OH - ions are 14.Bases produce what in solution? (name)
14.Base that is in batteries 15.Base in milk of magnesia 16.Bases have a ______feel and ________ taste. 17.Acids have a _______ taste. 18.Acids and bases are both corrosive and react with indicators to produce a _______ change. 19.Both produce ions in water and are therefore _____________.