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2-1 © Prentice Hall, 2007 Chapter 2: Introduction to Object Orientation Object-Oriented Systems Analysis and Design Joey F. George, Dinesh Batra, Joseph S. Valacich, Jeffrey A. Hoffer
Chapter 2 2-2 © Prentice Hall, 2007 Chapter Objectives Af ter studying this chapter you should be able to: – Define an object. – Understand the terms class, attribute, and operations. – Explain generalization, polymorphism, and inheritance. – Define association. – Describe modeling and the Unified Modeling Language.
Chapter 2 2-3 © Prentice Hall, 2007 Unified Modeling Language (UML) A standard notation for representing object- oriented systems Boxes represent classes, components, packages, objects – Containing attributes and operations – Provide interfaces to external entities Lines represent generalization and other relationships
Chapter 2 2-4 © Prentice Hall, 2007 Sample UML Diagram
Chapter 2 2-5 © Prentice Hall, 2007 What Is an Object? An entity that encapsulates data and behavior - Objects are categorized into classes - Each individual object is an instance of a class
Chapter 2 2-6 © Prentice Hall, 2007 What Is Encapsulation? The characteristic of object-orientation in which data and behavior are bundled into a class and hidden from the outside world Access to the data and behavior is provided and controlled through an object’s interface
Chapter 2 2-7 © Prentice Hall, 2007 What Is a Class? A category of objects that share the same attributes, operations, relationships, and semantics All objects are instances of classes
Chapter 2 2-8 © Prentice Hall, 2007 Name Attributes Operations
Chapter 2 2-9 © Prentice Hall, 2007 What Is an Attribute? Attribute- a named property of a class that describes a range of values that instances of the attribute might hold Attributes are the way classes encapsulate data
Chapter 2 2-10 © Prentice Hall, 2007 Attributes are properties containing values Minus sign indicates these are private (hidden)
Chapter 2 2-11 © Prentice Hall, 2007 What Is an Operation? A behavior of an object Implemented in classes are methods Methods are identified and invoked by their signatures, including name, parameters, and return type
Chapter 2 2-12 © Prentice Hall, 2007 Signature has name, parameters, return type Method implements the behavior
Chapter 2 2-13 © Prentice Hall, 2007 Plus sign indicates these are public (accessible)
Chapter 2 2-14 © Prentice Hall, 2007 What Is Generalization? A relationship between a more general (or parent) class and a more specific (or child) class The more specific class has additional attributes and operations
Chapter 2 2-15 © Prentice Hall, 2007 What Is Inheritance? The mechanism by which the more specific class in a generalization relationship includes the attributes and operations of the more general class
Chapter 2 2-16 © Prentice Hall, 2007 Generalization represented by arrows from subclass to superclass Subclasses inherit all attributes and operations of superclasses
Chapter 2 2-17 © Prentice Hall, 2007 What Is Polymorphism? The ability for different classes of objects to respond to identical messages in different ways Polymorphism = “having many forms” Different behaviors for the same message
Chapter 2 2-18 © Prentice Hall, 2007 Here, each type of vehicle has its own version of calcPrice()
Chapter 2 2-19 © Prentice Hall, 2007 What Is a Component? A replaceable part of a system providing a clearly defined function through a set of interfaces Group of classes working together toward a common end; a subsystem
Chapter 2 2-20 © Prentice Hall, 2007 What Is an Interface? The mechanism by which users of a component invoke its behaviors and manipulate its properties The interface is implemented by method signatures
Chapter 2 2-21 © Prentice Hall, 2007 Interfaces are represented as small rectangles
Chapter 2 2-22 © Prentice Hall, 2007 What Is a Package? A logical grouping of related analysis or design elements Group of classes sharing similar characteristics or purposes
Chapter 2 2-23 © Prentice Hall, 2007 Package is to component as folder is to file
Chapter 2 2-24 © Prentice Hall, 2007 What Is an Association? A relationship or link between instances of (or objects) of classes Three types: – Simple associations: no ownership – Aggregations: part-whole relationships where the part can exist independently of the whole – Compositions: part-whole relationships where the part and the whole are fully dependent on each other
Chapter 2 2-25 © Prentice Hall, 2007 This is a binary association, showing roles and multiplicities roles multiplicities
Chapter 2 2-26 © Prentice Hall, 2007 Systems Modeling Systems modeling – creating an abstraction of a system Abstraction – focusing on the relevant aspects and ignoring other details UML is a modeling approach, involving these diagrams: – Use-case, sequence, communication, class, object, activity, state, composite structure, package, component, deployment
Chapter 2 2-27 © Prentice Hall, 2007 UML Diagrams – Use-case diagram – shows use cases, actors, and relationships describing user interactions with system – Sequence diagram – shows interactions of objects via message-passing in time-ordered manner – Communication diagram – similar to sequence diagram, but without the time-ordering – Class diagram – shows set of classes and relationships (generalizations and associations) – Object diagram – shows specific instances of a class diagram – Activity diagram – shows flow of activities, or wokflow of objects
Chapter 2 2-28 © Prentice Hall, 2007 UML Diagrams (cont.) – State diagram – shows transitioning of an object from state to state in response to events – Composite structure diagram – shows how a component whole is made up of its parts – Package diagram – shows logical grouping of analysis or design elements – Component diagram – shows software components or modules and their relationships – Deployment diagram – shows configuration of runtime processing nodes and their components
© 2005 by Prentice Hall Appendix 3 Object-Oriented Analysis and Design Modern Systems Analysis and Design Fourth Edition Jeffrey A. Hoffer Joey F. George.
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9-1 © Prentice Hall, 2004 Chapter 9, Part II: System Behavior - Interactions (Adapted) Object-Oriented Systems Analysis and Design Joey F. George, Dinesh.
Copyright 2004 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Essentials of Systems Analysis and Design Second Edition Joseph S. Valacich Joey F. George Jeffrey A. Hoffer Appendix.
Joey F. George, Dinesh Batra, Joseph S. Valacich, Jeffrey A. Hoffer
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