Imperialism- European powers were going to all parts of the world to gain land. Africa, Asia, The Pacific By 1910, the most desirable colonies had been taken. Germany envied France and Britain b/c they had the most richest colonies. They soon realized that the only way to get land in Africa was to take it away from the colonizers.
Cartoon- European grab bag European nations competing for colonies around the world…..Imperialism
2 forms- 1: to act in the country’s own national interest. Ex: Alsace-Lorraine-strip of land on the boarder of France and Germany. Had been taken by Germany in 1871 and France was expecting to gain it back. Germany did not want to give it up. This caused problems in their relationship.
2. The longing for an ethnic minority independence in a nation where there are many different/diverse groups. Ex: Austria-Hungary- Hungarians and German speaking Austrians governed millions of Czechs, Slovaks, Poles Italians, Romanians and Serbs. These different groups wanted their own independent self government and lands. This often caused conflict within the nation itself.
Building up a nation’s military for war and giving them more power than the government. Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Great Britain, Russia Spend large sums of money on new weapons and warships. All of these countries were preparing for war.
Alliances balance of powerEuropean nations began forming military alliances with one another to maintain a balance of power …….. Triple AllianceTriple Entente Central PowersAllied Powers GermanyGreat Britain Austria-Hungary EmpireFrance BulgariaRussia
Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his family. Archduke was heir to the throne in the Austrian Hungarian Empire. His assassination June 28, 1914 eventually led to WWI. Garvillo Princip, a Serbian nationalist assassinated the Archduke. He was trying to gain allowances for his fellow Serbs who lived under Austrian rule. Franz Ferdinand’s funeral procession franz Assassination of Franz Ferdinand
Alliance Chain Reaction When the Archduke was assassinated, Bosnia along with Serbia were annexed to Austria-Hungary. Austria-Hungary was convinced Serbia has something to do with the killings. They used this excuse to declare war on Serbia on July 28, 1914. This set off the chain reaction of alliances throughout Europe.
July 29, 1914- (Russia was Serbia’s protector) began mobilization. Germany demanded Russia stop. They didn’t. Germany declared war on Russia. Russia’s ally France declared war on Germany. Germany declares war on Belgium. Great Britain declared war on Germany.
Quick sweep through France to knock the French out of the war then turn east and defeat Russia. Germany is between France and Russia. This plan was put in order to avoid fighting both countries at the same time.
Germany had to pass through Belgium to get to France Belgium was neutral. Germany hoped Britain would stay out of the war. The invasion of Belgium brought Britain into the war. 1 week after the conflict started all of Europe’s great powers were involved.
Central Powers Germany Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Allies Russia France Serbia Great Britain
Archduke and Wife Assassinated Austria-Hungary Declares war on Serbia July 28, 1914 Russia Begins Mobilization July 29, 1914 Germany Declares war on Russia August 1,1914 Russian’s ally France readies troops Germany Demands Russia Stop Germany’s Schlieffen Plan Britain Enters War after invasion of Belgium August 4, 1914 Central Powers and Allies Formed
Stalemate- Both sides can’t gain the advantage. Germany and France and Britain 1914 Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria join Central Powers Italy and Romania join Allies
Central Powers Germany Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Allies Russia France Serbia Great Britain Italy Romania
Machine guns and rapid fire artillery Grenades Submarines Poison Gas Air Planes Zeppelins Tanks Battle of Somme in 1916 British troops lost 20,000 troops in one day.
Trench foot Contracted lice from rats Constant fear No man’s land Casualties (French had 1,000,000 casualties in first 3 months of war)
Some felt personally involved b/c 92 million were immigrants or children of immigrants. Germans and Irish for Central Powers Most Americans for Allies Wilson wanted Americans to remain neutral.
Panama Canal was completed in August of 1914 just a week before WWI began in Europe. Woodrow Wilson became President in 1912. Americans were shocked by the outbreak of war but…………..it was in Europe. NEUTRALUS was officially NEUTRAL
American Neutrality- Influenced by trade Preparedness Movement- Be ready for war. Patriotic education (Propaganda) Peace Movement- Progressives, social reformers and women. (Women marching down streets proclaiming peace).
3 groups Isolationists- Stay out of war Interventionists- U.S. should intervene on side of Allies Internationalists- Get involved only to solve the problem and promote peace.
Britain blockades Germany for its contraband. Later Britain took all of the goods that were supposed to go into Germany. (Food, cotton, medicine, gasoline) German response = blockade of Britain
U-Boats- Britain and Germany competed to build the largest and strongest navy. Germany blockaded Britain by navy. Propaganda used by Britain to sway U.S. opinion. Lusitania- 128 Americans killed Germany agreed to stop blowing up passenger ships. March 24,1916 Sussex was sunk by Germans
Killed 2 Americans Sussex Pledge- Germans would warn ships before they sank them. Wilson authorized banks to make a huge loan to the Allies.
May 7, 1915, the Germans sunk the Lusitania which was British passenger liner. contraband (weapons) Germans believed it was carrying contraband (weapons) to the British. Killed 1,198 civilians including 128 Americans. “unrestricted submarine warfare”. U.S. and other countries outraged towards Germany because of “unrestricted submarine warfare”. international law US believed the Germans had violated international law of targeting civilians
Jan. 31, 1917 Germany informs U.S. that the Sussex pledge would be ended. Feb. 3 U.S. cuts off diplomatic ties with Germany. Zimmerman Note- Germany promises lost land to Mexico if they declare war on U.S.
“Remember Your First Thrill of American Liberty” (p. 649)
Committee on Public Information - propaganda agency in America (George Creel) “do your bit” for the war Hate the Hun, Liberty Cabbage, Salisbury Steak, Can the Kaiser
Espionage and Sedition Acts (1917-18) jail sentences for those critical of disloyal or abusive remarks toward US war effort Schenck v. United States (1919) “clear and present danger” - free speech could be limited
Selective Service Act (1917) draft: 2.8 million draftees, 2.9 million volunteers Eventually 2 million were sent to Europe Blacks - 400,000 served, few officers Blacks hoped for service abroad = equal rights at home (not so)
Women took mens jobs while men were “Over There” led to Nineteenth Amendment Mexicans - left Mexico (upheaval and revolution) and took jobs in American West Blacks - Great Migration to northern cities for job opportunities and to escape poverty
Russian revolution and withdrawal (Treaty of Brest-Litovsk) allowed Germany to focus on Western front entirely Naval shipping losses = huge. Led to “Convoy System” and record ship construction
American Expedition ary Force (AEF) General John J. Pershing First major action in spring 1918
German Counter- offensive Chateau-Thierry (2nd Battle of the Marne) Belleau Wood (June 1918) Meuse (river) - Argonnes (forest) Offensive (Fall 1918) St. Mihiel November 11, 1918 - Armistice (cease-fire)
Paris and Palace of Versailles Big Four: Woodrow Wilson (USA) David Lloyd George (GBR) Georges Clemenceau (FR) Orlando Vittorio (IT) Russia excluded Defeated powers humiliated Wilson’s 14 points the major proposal
To “make the world safe for democracy” #1-5 - international law recommendations #6-13 - European boundary restructure #14 - League of Nations