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1st World War in history Great War or War to End all War Not called WWI until after WWII Total war Involved 60 nations and 6 continents.

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Presentation on theme: "1st World War in history Great War or War to End all War Not called WWI until after WWII Total war Involved 60 nations and 6 continents."— Presentation transcript:


2 1st World War in history Great War or War to End all War Not called WWI until after WWII Total war Involved 60 nations and 6 continents

3 Cost of War $400 billion $10 million dollars an hour 16 million deaths First war of the Industrial Revolution…… New Weapons vs old tactics of fighting

4 world map

5  Imperialism- European powers were going to all parts of the world to gain land.  Africa, Asia, The Pacific  By 1910, the most desirable colonies had been taken.  Germany envied France and Britain b/c they had the most richest colonies.  They soon realized that the only way to get land in Africa was to take it away from the colonizers.

6 Cartoon- European grab bag European nations competing for colonies around the world…..Imperialism

7 Cartoon- European grab bag


9  2 forms- 1: to act in the country’s own national interest.  Ex: Alsace-Lorraine-strip of land on the boarder of France and Germany.  Had been taken by Germany in 1871 and France was expecting to gain it back.  Germany did not want to give it up.  This caused problems in their relationship.

10  2. The longing for an ethnic minority independence in a nation where there are many different/diverse groups.  Ex: Austria-Hungary- Hungarians and German speaking Austrians governed millions of Czechs, Slovaks, Poles Italians, Romanians and Serbs.  These different groups wanted their own independent self government and lands.  This often caused conflict within the nation itself.

11  Building up a nation’s military for war and giving them more power than the government.  Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Great Britain, Russia  Spend large sums of money on new weapons and warships.  All of these countries were preparing for war.

12 Alliances balance of powerEuropean nations began forming military alliances with one another to maintain a balance of power …….. Triple AllianceTriple Entente Central PowersAllied Powers GermanyGreat Britain Austria-Hungary EmpireFrance BulgariaRussia


14 Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his family. Archduke was heir to the throne in the Austrian Hungarian Empire. His assassination June 28, 1914 eventually led to WWI. Garvillo Princip, a Serbian nationalist assassinated the Archduke. He was trying to gain allowances for his fellow Serbs who lived under Austrian rule. Franz Ferdinand’s funeral procession franz Assassination of Franz Ferdinand


16 Alliance Chain Reaction  When the Archduke was assassinated, Bosnia along with Serbia were annexed to Austria-Hungary.  Austria-Hungary was convinced Serbia has something to do with the killings.  They used this excuse to declare war on Serbia on July 28, 1914.  This set off the chain reaction of alliances throughout Europe.

17  July 29, 1914- (Russia was Serbia’s protector) began mobilization.  Germany demanded Russia stop. They didn’t. Germany declared war on Russia.  Russia’s ally France declared war on Germany.  Germany declares war on Belgium.  Great Britain declared war on Germany.

18  Quick sweep through France to knock the French out of the war then turn east and defeat Russia.  Germany is between France and Russia.  This plan was put in order to avoid fighting both countries at the same time.

19  Germany had to pass through Belgium to get to France  Belgium was neutral.  Germany hoped Britain would stay out of the war.  The invasion of Belgium brought Britain into the war.  1 week after the conflict started all of Europe’s great powers were involved.

20  Central Powers  Germany  Austria-Hungary  Bulgaria  Allies  Russia  France  Serbia  Great Britain


22 Archduke and Wife Assassinated Austria-Hungary Declares war on Serbia July 28, 1914 Russia Begins Mobilization July 29, 1914 Germany Declares war on Russia August 1,1914 Russian’s ally France readies troops Germany Demands Russia Stop Germany’s Schlieffen Plan Britain Enters War after invasion of Belgium August 4, 1914 Central Powers and Allies Formed

23  Stalemate- Both sides can’t gain the advantage.  Germany and France and Britain  1914 Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria join Central Powers  Italy and Romania join Allies

24  Central Powers  Germany  Austria-Hungary  Ottoman Empire  Bulgaria  Allies  Russia  France  Serbia  Great Britain  Italy  Romania

25  Machine guns and rapid fire artillery  Grenades  Submarines  Poison Gas  Air Planes  Zeppelins  Tanks  Battle of Somme in 1916 British troops lost 20,000 troops in one day.

26  Trench foot  Contracted lice from rats  Constant fear  No man’s land  Casualties (French had 1,000,000 casualties in first 3 months of war)

27 Trench Warfare



30  Some felt personally involved b/c 92 million were immigrants or children of immigrants.  Germans and Irish for Central Powers  Most Americans for Allies  Wilson wanted Americans to remain neutral.

31 Panama Canal was completed in August of 1914 just a week before WWI began in Europe. Woodrow Wilson became President in 1912. Americans were shocked by the outbreak of war but………… was in Europe. NEUTRALUS was officially NEUTRAL

32  American Neutrality- Influenced by trade  Preparedness Movement- Be ready for war. Patriotic education (Propaganda)  Peace Movement- Progressives, social reformers and women. (Women marching down streets proclaiming peace).

33  3 groups  Isolationists- Stay out of war  Interventionists- U.S. should intervene on side of Allies  Internationalists- Get involved only to solve the problem and promote peace.

34  Britain blockades Germany for its contraband.  Later Britain took all of the goods that were supposed to go into Germany. (Food, cotton, medicine, gasoline)  German response = blockade of Britain

35  U-Boats- Britain and Germany competed to build the largest and strongest navy.  Germany blockaded Britain by navy.  Propaganda used by Britain to sway U.S. opinion.  Lusitania- 128 Americans killed  Germany agreed to stop blowing up passenger ships.  March 24,1916 Sussex was sunk by Germans

36  Killed 2 Americans  Sussex Pledge- Germans would warn ships before they sank them.  Wilson authorized banks to make a huge loan to the Allies.

37 May 7, 1915, the Germans sunk the Lusitania which was British passenger liner. contraband (weapons) Germans believed it was carrying contraband (weapons) to the British. Killed 1,198 civilians including 128 Americans. “unrestricted submarine warfare”. U.S. and other countries outraged towards Germany because of “unrestricted submarine warfare”. international law US believed the Germans had violated international law of targeting civilians


39 war zone

40  Jan. 31, 1917 Germany informs U.S. that the Sussex pledge would be ended.  Feb. 3 U.S. cuts off diplomatic ties with Germany.  Zimmerman Note- Germany promises lost land to Mexico if they declare war on U.S.

41 zimmerman cartoon

42  War Industries Board (Bernard Baruch) coordinated production and price controls  Food Administration (Herbert Hoover) voluntary efforts to conserve food for soldiers  Financing - Liberty Bonds


44 America and the War Effort (p. 636)

45 “Remember Your First Thrill of American Liberty” (p. 649)

46  Committee on Public Information - propaganda agency in America (George Creel) “do your bit” for the war  Hate the Hun, Liberty Cabbage, Salisbury Steak, Can the Kaiser

47  Espionage and Sedition Acts (1917-18) jail sentences for those critical of disloyal or abusive remarks toward US war effort  Schenck v. United States (1919) “clear and present danger” - free speech could be limited

48  Selective Service Act (1917) draft: 2.8 million draftees, 2.9 million volunteers  Eventually 2 million were sent to Europe  Blacks - 400,000 served, few officers  Blacks hoped for service abroad = equal rights at home (not so)

49  Women took mens jobs while men were “Over There” led to Nineteenth Amendment  Mexicans - left Mexico (upheaval and revolution) and took jobs in American West  Blacks - Great Migration to northern cities for job opportunities and to escape poverty

50  Russian revolution and withdrawal (Treaty of Brest-Litovsk) allowed Germany to focus on Western front entirely  Naval shipping losses = huge. Led to “Convoy System” and record ship construction

51  American Expedition ary Force (AEF)  General John J. Pershing  First major action in spring 1918

52  German Counter- offensive  Chateau-Thierry (2nd Battle of the Marne)  Belleau Wood (June 1918)  Meuse (river) - Argonnes (forest) Offensive (Fall 1918)  St. Mihiel  November 11, 1918 - Armistice (cease-fire)



55 Map 22.2 U.S Participation on the Western Front, 1918 (p. 644)



58  50,000 Americans died in 1918 combat  1918 Influenza epidemic (worldwide) killed thousands of soldiers and millions of people around the globe  112,000 American fatalities from flu


60  Paris and Palace of Versailles  Big Four: Woodrow Wilson (USA) David Lloyd George (GBR) Georges Clemenceau (FR) Orlando Vittorio (IT)  Russia excluded  Defeated powers humiliated  Wilson’s 14 points the major proposal

61  To “make the world safe for democracy”  #1-5 - international law recommendations  #6-13 - European boundary restructure  #14 - League of Nations



64 Map 22.3 The Great Migration and Beyond (p. 650)

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