Presentation on theme: "History of Philosophy. What is philosophy? Philosophy is what everyone does when they’re not busy dealing with their everyday business and get a change."— Presentation transcript:
What is philosophy? Philosophy is what everyone does when they’re not busy dealing with their everyday business and get a change simply to wonder what life and the universe are all about. Philosophy is not so much about coming up with the answers to fundamental questions as it is about the process of trying to find these answers, using reasoning rather than accepting without question conventional views or traditional authority.
The first ∧ philosophers Greek and Chinese Unsatisfied with established explanations provided by religion and custom documented
Thales of Miletus – C624-546 BCE EVERYTHING IS MADE OF WATER
Pythagoras – c.570-495 BCE Everything in the universe conforms to mathematical rules and ratios So if we understand number and mathematical relationships… … we come to understand the structure of the cosmos Mathematics is the key model for philosophical thought Number is the ruler of idea.
Ways of Knowing “schools” taught both: Thesis methods of analysis
Thinking about Thinking Debate and dialogue Existence and knowledge Morality, art, and politics Math and Science
Socrates 469 BCE Questioning methods of questioning THE LIFE WHICH IS UNEXAMINED IS NOT WORTH LIVING.
Q. So you think that the gods know everything? A. Yes, because they are gods. Q. Do some gods disagree with others? A. Yes, of course they do. They are always fighting. Q. So gods disagree about what is true and right? A. I suppose they must do. Q. So some gods can be wrong sometimes? A. I suppose that is true. Therefore the gods cannot know everything!
Medieval Philosophy Theology and Philosophy Of what is the soul made?
Renaissance & Reformation Sciences and Christianity
Many philosophical movements Realism – Machiavelli The end justifies the means. Humanism – de Montaigne Fame and tranquility can never be bedfellows Empiricism – Bacon Knowledge is power. Physicalism – Hobbes Man is a machine
Rationalism I THINK THEREFORE I AM. Rene Descartes 1596-1650 CE
An evil demon may be making me believe things that are false. There is nothing of which I can be certain. But when I say “I am. I exist”, I cannot be wrong about this. An evil demon could try to make me believe this only if I really do exist. I am thinking, therefore I exist.
Rationalism The belief that knowledge comes from reason alone.
TOK Moment Language Reason Emotion Sense Perception Intuition Imagination Memory Faith
DIALECTIC PROCESS Thesis – Antithesis – Synthesis
Empiricism All knowledge comes from experience. John Locke said, “No man’s knowledge here can go beyond his experience.”
Dialectic Process PhysicalismIdealism Hobbes said, “Man is a machine.” Physicalism, sometimes called Materialism, stresses that everything is dependent of physical processes. Berkeley said, “To be is to be perceived.” Idealism takes a spiritual interpretation of experience.
The Age of Revolution Scepticism – Voltaire Doubt is not a pleasant condition, but certainty is absurd. Empiricism – Hume Custom is the great guide of human life. Social Contract Theory – Rousseau Man was born free yet everywhere he is in chains Transcendental Idealism – Kant There are two worlds: our bodies and the external world
The Age of Revolution Conservatism – Burke Society is indeed a contract. Feminism – Wollstonecraft Mind has no gender Idealism – Hegel Reality is a historical process. Idealism – Schopenhauer Every man takes the limits of his own field of vision for the limits of the world
Existentialism Søren Kierkegaard ANXIETY IS THE DIZZINESS OF FREEDOM.