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B ACTERIA & V IRUSES Review of Past Knowledge W HAT ARE THE C HARACTERISTICS OF O RGANISMS ? 1. All living things are composed of cells 2. All living.

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Presentation on theme: "B ACTERIA & V IRUSES Review of Past Knowledge W HAT ARE THE C HARACTERISTICS OF O RGANISMS ? 1. All living things are composed of cells 2. All living."— Presentation transcript:



3 Review of Past Knowledge

4 W HAT ARE THE C HARACTERISTICS OF O RGANISMS ? 1. All living things are composed of cells 2. All living things perform certain chemical processes (such as growth and digestion) 3. All living things can reproduce 4. All living things either make their own nutrients or ingest nutrients (from the environment) 5. All living things respond to stimuli (such as light and touch)

5 W HAT ARE P ROKARYOTES ? Most microbes are prokaryotes Exist almost every where on earth Cells that do not have a nucleus Contains a rigid cell wall, cytoplasm and ribosomes. Identifying Prokaryotes: Cell Shape Cell Wall Movement

6 H OW ARE B ACTERIA S TRUCTURED ? Enclosed by a cell wall Contains cytoplasm and hereditary material of the cell Ribsomes are the only organelle found in the cytoplasm

7 W HAT ARE THE DIFFERENT B ACTERIUM S HAPES ? Cocci ~ Sphere shaped bacteria Bacillus ~ Rod shaped bacteria Spirrillium ~ Spiral shaped bacteria Flagella~ Leg-like structures that help to propel the bacterium.

8 Can live in a variety of places (with or without O 2, extreme hot or cold) Reproduce through asexual reproduction; can grow and divide extremely rapidly under optimal conditions; can double very quickly Bacterial infections are treated with antibiotics; C HARACTERISTICS OF B ACTERIA

9 W HAT ARE V IRUSES ? A virus is a non-cellular particle made up of genetic material and protein invade living cells and reproduce.

10 W HAT ARE V IRUSES ? Other than the ability to reproduce, viruses lack nearly every characteristic of life Not composed of cells Do not respond to stimuli Do not use energy for growth and development Need electron microscope to see

11 H OW IS A VIRUS STRUCTURED ? DNA or RNA (retrovirus) Surrounded by protective protein coat (capsid) Genetic material carries information for multiplication Hijacks biochemical machinery of host cell to carry these processes out

12 Need a host cell to reproduce Use enzymes and organelles of host cell to make more viruses usually killing the host cell Active (i.e. flu) reproduce quickly Inactive (i.e. HIV) viruses reproduce more slowly Vaccines (weakened form of pathogen) and some anti-viral drugs may control or prevent the spread Active immunity: you make antibodies (i.e. hepatitis, measles, etc.) Passive immunity; antibodies are injected (i.e. rabies) VIRUS C HARACTERISTICS

13 W HAT IS THE DEFINITION OF D ISEASE ? Any change that disrupts the normal function of one or more body systems. What are Noninfectious diseases ? Noninfectious diseases: Diseases caused by exposure to certain chemicals or traits that are inherited. What are infectious diseases ? Infectious diseases: Diseases caused by a pathogen. What is a pathogen? any microbe that causes disease.

14 H OW ARE I NFECTIOUS D ISEASES S PREAD ? Infectious disease can be spread through: 1. contact with an infected person ex: Influenza (V) 2. contact with a contaminated object ex: Athleteis foot (F) or Influenza (V) 3. contact with an infected animal ex: Lyme Disease (B): Bite from infected tick contact with an environmental source.

15 H OW DO VECTORS SPREAD DISEASE ? What is a vector? Vector is an organism that helps a disease spread Water and insects serve as vectors What is a carrier? Carrier is an organism infected with disease causing microbe Can transmit to another living thing.

16 D ISEASES C AUSED BY B ACTERIA How are bacterial infections cured or treated? Use antibiotics to cure bacterial infections What are antibiotics? a chemical that can kill bacteria without harming a person’s cells What is antibiotic resistance? when mutant bacteria survive antibiotic treatment and give rise to resistant populations antibiotic will no longer kill This is what happens when you do not take medicine completely **Why may the development of “antibiotic resistant” bacteria be harmful to humans?

17 What are some examples of diseases caused by bacteria? Anthrax Lyme Disease Leprosy Bacterial Meningitis Strep Throat Tuberculosis

18 H OW ARE DISEASES CAUSED BY VIRUSES ? Cause disease by either damaging or killing cells First attaches itself to a healthy cell and then injects its DNA or RNA into cell Then replicates inside infected cell No Cure, just prevention with vaccine. What are vaccines? Vaccines : a substance introduced into the body to stimulate the production of chemicals that destroy specific viruses or bacteria.. Some vaccines still work after infection to lessen severity of illness (Rabies)

19 W HAT ARE SOME EXAMPLES OF DISEASES CAUSED BY VIRUSES ? Rabies Influenza West Nile Virus Viral Meningitis Polio Common Cold AIDS/HIV Chicken Pox Small Pox Yellow Fever * Ebola SARS

20 H1N1: Swine Flu H5N1: Avian Flu Measles Hepatitis Rabies West Nile Virus

21 D ISEASES C AUSES BY P ROTISTS the protists that cause each of these diseases are caused by parasites Parasite is an organism that takes nourishment or habitat from another organism Most cases do not kill the host Examples Dysentery Malaria *

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