2 Autotrophs and Heterotrophs How Organisms Obtain EnergyAutotrophs and HeterotrophsAll organism need glucose!Autotrophs are organisms that make their own glucose.Heterotrophs are organisms that need to ingest glucose to obtain energy.
3 ATP: The Unit of Cellular Energy How Organisms Obtain EnergyATP: The Unit of Cellular EnergyATP releases energy when the bond between the second and third phosphate groups is broken, forming a molecule called adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and a free phosphate group.– watch this clip
4 What chemical bond in ATP releases energy when broken? phosphatesulfuroxygenpotassium
5 Describe Photosynthesis The process of changing light energy to chemical energyEnergy stored as sugarOccurs in plants and some algaePlants need light energy, CO2, and H2OTakes place in the chloroplasts, using chlorophyll, the green pigment in plants
6 What three things do plants need for photosynthesis? Light energyCO2H2O
7 What happens during photosynthesis? Plants capture light energy and use that energy to make glucoseSunlight provides the energy needed by chlorophyll to change molecules of carbon dioxide and water into glucoseOxygen is also released in this reaction
8 What happens during photosynthesis? Carbon dioxide enters the leaf through holes called stomataCO2 combines with the stored energy in the chloroplasts through a chemical reaction to make glucoseThe sugar is moved through tubes in the leaf to the roots, stems and fruits of the plantsSome of the sugar is used right away by the plant for energy; some is stored as starch; and some is built into plant tissue
9 Why is this important to us? We cannot make our own food (glucose, energy), we must get our food from plants.Plants are the first step in the food chain.The oxygen released during photosynthesis is necessary for all living things.
10 What is the Equation for the Chemical Reaction of Photosynthesis?
11 What is the equation for the chemical reaction of photosynthesis? ReactantsProducts
12 Press Pause, Think, & Share Think about the following… 1) What happens during photosynthesis? 2) Why is this important? 3) What are the reactants and products for photosynthesis? Turn to your shoulder partner and talk about these points.What is an atom?What are the parts of an atom and what are their charges
13 What did you discuss? What happens during photosynthesis? Plants capture light energy and use it to convert it to glucose.Why is this important?Glucose is made that organisms needs as well as oxygen.What are the reactants and products for photosynthesis?
14 What does ADP and ATP stand for What does ADP and ATP stand for? What is the role of this molecule inside a cell?
15 Time to WriteUsing the graphic organizer that was handed to you, fill in the missing information.Trim the border and then glue this in your composition notebook.
16 Okay, the sugar is made…Now what? Cellular Respiration
17 What is Cellular Respiration? Once the energy that was in sunlight is changed into chemical energy by photosynthesis, an organism has to transform the chemical energy into a a form that can be used by the organism.This process is cellular respiration.
18 Overview of Cellular Respiration Organisms obtain energy in a process called cellular respiration.The equation for cellular respiration is the opposite of the equation for photosynthesis.
19 Describe Cellular Respiration The breakdown of glucose molecules to release energyTakes place in all living thingsThere are two typesAerobic and anaerobic
20 Aerobic Cellular respiration Takes place in the presence of oxygenMore energy is releasedGlucose + Oxygen ATP + CO2 + H2O
21 Anaerobic Cellular respiration Takes place WITHOUT oxygenLess energy is releasedTypically called fermentationTwo typesLactic acid fermentationOccurs in muscles without oxygen and produces lactic acidAlcoholic fermentationOccurs in organisms without oxygen and ethanol is produced
22 Press Pause, Think, & Share Think about the following… 1) What happens during cellular respiration? 2) Why is this important? 3) What are the reactants and products for cellular respiration? Turn to your should partner and talk about these points.
23 What did you discuss? What happens during cellular respiration? Glucose is broken down to a smaller energy, ATPWhy is this important?Glucose is too large to for the cell to utilizeWhat are the reactants and products for photosynthesis?Aerobic= Glucose + Oxygen ATP + CO2 + H2OAnaerobicAlcoholic fermentation= Glucose ATP + CO2 + H2O+ ethanolLactic fermentation = Glucose ATP + CO2 + H2O+ lactic acid
24 Time to WriteUsing the graphic organizer that was handed to you, fill in the missing information.Trim the border and then glue this in your composition notebook.