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Chapter 18 Physical Geography of Africa The Plateau Continent

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 18 Physical Geography of Africa The Plateau Continent"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 18 Physical Geography of Africa The Plateau Continent
Objective: Analyze key features of Africa’s physical geography, climate/vegetation, & human- environment interaction

2 Chapter 18 Section 1 Landforms & Resources
Vocabulary: Basin, Nile River, Rift Valley, Mount Kilimanjaro, & Escarpment Objective: Describe the distinctive African landforms of rift valleys, lakes, mountains, & escarpments

3 A Vast Plateau Africa moved very little during continental drift
Plateaus are Africa’s most prominent physical features Several basins lie throughout the plateaus The Nile River is the longest river in the world covering more than 4,000 miles Africa contains waterfalls, rapids, & gorges

4 Distinctive African Landforms
As continental plates pulled apart, it formed Rift Valleys in Africa Lakes are formed at the bottom of the rift valleys Lake Tanganyika is the longest freshwater lake in the world located within the rift valley Mount Kilimanjaro is Africa’s highest mountain

5 Africa’s Wealth of Resources
Africa has a large amount of resources but lacks the industrial base & money to develop them Africa has large quantities of gold, platinum, chromium, cobalt, copper, phosphates, diamonds, & other minerals Due to European colonial rule, African nations have been slow to develop the infrastructure & industries to turn the resources into valuable products Libya, Nigeria, & Algeria have oil reserves

6 Diversity of Resources
Coffee is the most profitable commodity in Africa They grow 20% of the world’s supply Lumber is another important commodity in Africa Other major commodities include sugar, palm oil, & cocoa 66% of Africans earn their living from farming

7 Chapter 18 Section 2 Climate & Vegetation
Vocabulary: Sahara, Aquifer, Oasis, Serengeti Plain, & Canopy Objective: Explain the distribution of warm climates in Africa

8 A Warm Continent The Sahara is the largest desert in the world, that stretches 3,000 miles across the continent Temperatures can rise as high as 134 degrees during the day but freezing at night Travelers rely on camels who can go up to 17 days without water Underground water called aquifers are located below the desert Oasis support vegetation & wildlife

9 Sunshine & Rainfall Rainfall in Africa is often a matter of extremes; some areas get too much rain, while other parts receive too little It also varies year to year & season to season Central Africa receives the most precipitation, as rain falls throughout the year In the Sahara may not see rain for years

10 A Grassy Continent Africa’s vegetation consists of grasslands, rain forests, & a wide variety of other plant life The Serengeti Plain has dry climate & hard soil that prevents the growth of trees & many crops However it has a vast quantity of grass

11 Africa’s Extremes The major rain forest of Africa is on the Congo Basin The massive number of plants, leaves, & trees block out much of the sunlight Most animals in the rain forest live in the canopy (uppermost layer of branches) Farmers use slash & burn to clear the land

12 Chapter 18 Section 3 Human-Environment Interaction
Objective: Niger Delta, Sahel, Desertification, Aswan High Dam, & Silt Objective: Explain the harm caused by oil operations in Nigeria

13 Desertification of the Sahel
Sahel: narrow band of dry grassland that runs along the Sahara Desertification is an expansion of dry conditions into moist areas that are next to deserts Human causes of desertification include overgrazing, farming, irrigation, & overpopulations Desertification is destroying land & is difficult to slow down

14 Harming the Environment in Nigeria
Oil accounts for 80% of Nigeria’s income Nigeria’s government owed millions of dollars in loans to drill more oil Mismanagement, poor planning, corruption, & decline in oil prices has left Nigeria poor then before the oil boom 4,000 oil spills have occurred & very little clean up is done Nigeria has started economic reforms & trying to find ways for Nigeria to benefit again

15 Controlling the Nile Egypt has faced issues controlling the floodwaters of the Nile River They build the Aswan High Dam that keeps the water year round & releases its for farmers The dam has increased farmable land by 50% However it causes issues with no deposits of silt & less fertile soil

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