4 Operationalization Operationalization: to put an experiment into a form that allows researchers to test the hypothesis Independent variable: the variable that researchers control Independent variable Dependent variable Dependent variable: the variable that researchers are studying What other questions should the researchers ask?
5 Operationalization (continued) Confounding variables Reliability Validity What else might cause nightmares? What makes a movie scary? SCARY = ? How can we tell if a child has had a nightmare?
6 Experimenting, Recording Results, Conclusion Recording the resultsConducting the experiment Drawing conclusions does cause
7 Correlation vs. Causation Correlation versus causation: just because two things are related doesn’t mean one thing caused the other Just because happened and then happened doesn’t necessarily mean that caused
8 Replication and Theory Development Replication Theory development = = = Experiment 1 results Experiment 2 results Experiment 3 results THEORY: =
9 Ethical Issues Is it right to experiment on people? What limits should there be?
10 Ethical Issues Is it right to experiment on animals? What limits should there be?