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Perception and Attribution

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2 Perception and Attribution
Module 9 Perception and Attribution

3 Learning Objectives 1. Appreciate the complex nature of the perceptual process. 2. Describe the perceptual process, and the internal and external determinants of individual perception. 3. Appreciate the impact that perceptual problems have on organizational life. 4. Understand your own perceptual process and barriers to accurate perception. 5. Describe how the attribution process influences perception and individual behavior. 6. Gain insights into the role that Pygmalion and self-fulfilling prophecy can play in the perceptual process at work. 7. Identify the basic managerial actions that can help overcome the barriers for accurate perception.

4 Key Terms and Concepts Age stereotype Attribution process
Attribution theory Defense mechanisms Denial Distortion Motivation Perception Perceptual process Premature closure Projection Pygmalion effect Race stereotype Self-fulfilling prophecy Sex-role stereotype Stereotypes

5 Module Outline Premodule Preparation Introduction
Perception and Perceptual Differences in Daily Life The Pygmalion Effect Attribution Theory Perceptual Challenges in Management Reducing Perceptual Differences and Distortion Summary

6 Premodule Preparation
Activity 9-1: Exploring Perceptual Issues via Dan Dunwoodie’s Challenge Objective: To have small groups identify and define the problem in a case study so that the process can be studied through the analysis of contrasting results presented by the groups. Case Study: Dan Dunwoodie’s Challenge

7 Introduction Perception and attribution provide a framework and a useful tool for understanding effectiveness at the individual, group, intergroup, and organizational levels.

8 Perception and Perceptual Differences in Daily Life
The Perceptual Process Physiological Factors Past Experience Codes of Past Experience Psychological Factors Motivation Defense Mechanisms Stereotypes

9 Perception and Perceptual Differences in Daily Life

10 Perception and Perceptual Differences in Daily Life

11 The Pygmalion Effect The Pygmalion effect dramatically demonstrates the influence of perception and expectation on the potential of people to grow, or not to grow, depending on the labels accorded them.

12 Attribution Theory Attribution theory focuses on process where individuals interpret events. Perceived causes of events, not actual events, influence individuals’ behavior. Attribution process includes four phases: (1) A particular behavioral event triggers a cognitive analysis that (2) focuses on what causes the event, (3) followed by a modification or reinforcement of previous assumptions of causality that (4) leads to behavioral choices regarding future behavioral events. In making attributions, people focus on: Consensus Consistency Distinctiveness

13 Perceptual Challenges in Management

14 Reducing Perceptual Differences and Distortion
Reducing the differences: Step 1: Recognize the condition Step 2: Help individuals gain better competencies in: • gathering factual data in the areas of performance, behavior, attitudes • reviewing their decision-making assumptions and outcomes • verifying them for validity and accuracy Step 3: Develop organizational mechanisms that will nurture dialoguing and appreciative inquiry

15 Summary ? Questions

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