2 Perception and Attribution Module 9PerceptionandAttribution
3 Learning Objectives1. Appreciate the complex nature of the perceptual process.2. Describe the perceptual process, and the internal and external determinants of individual perception.3. Appreciate the impact that perceptual problems have on organizational life.4. Understand your own perceptual process and barriers to accurate perception.5. Describe how the attribution process influences perception and individual behavior.6. Gain insights into the role that Pygmalion and self-fulfilling prophecy can play in the perceptual process at work.7. Identify the basic managerial actions that can help overcome the barriers for accurate perception.
4 Key Terms and Concepts Age stereotype Attribution process Attribution theoryDefense mechanismsDenialDistortionMotivationPerceptionPerceptual processPremature closureProjectionPygmalion effectRace stereotypeSelf-fulfilling prophecySex-role stereotypeStereotypes
5 Module Outline Premodule Preparation Introduction Perception and Perceptual Differences in Daily LifeThe Pygmalion EffectAttribution TheoryPerceptual Challenges in ManagementReducing Perceptual Differences and DistortionSummary
6 Premodule Preparation Activity 9-1: Exploring Perceptual Issues via Dan Dunwoodie’s ChallengeObjective:To have small groups identify and define the problem in a case study so that the process can be studied through the analysis of contrasting results presented by the groups.Case Study: Dan Dunwoodie’s Challenge
7 IntroductionPerception and attribution provide a framework and a useful tool for understanding effectiveness at the individual, group, intergroup, and organizational levels.
8 Perception and Perceptual Differences in Daily Life The Perceptual ProcessPhysiological FactorsPast ExperienceCodes of Past ExperiencePsychological FactorsMotivationDefense MechanismsStereotypes
9 Perception and Perceptual Differences in Daily Life (Continued)
10 Perception and Perceptual Differences in Daily Life (Continued)
11 The Pygmalion EffectThe Pygmalion effect dramatically demonstrates the influence of perception and expectation on the potential of people to grow, or not to grow, depending on the labels accorded them.
12 Attribution TheoryAttribution theory focuses on process where individuals interpret events.Perceived causes of events, not actual events, influence individuals’ behavior.Attribution process includes four phases:(1) A particular behavioral event triggers a cognitive analysis that (2) focuses on what causes the event, (3) followed by a modification or reinforcement of previous assumptions of causality that (4) leads to behavioral choices regarding future behavioral events.In making attributions, people focus on:ConsensusConsistencyDistinctiveness
14 Reducing Perceptual Differences and Distortion Reducing the differences:Step 1: Recognize the conditionStep 2: Help individuals gain better competencies in:• gathering factual data in the areas of performance, behavior, attitudes• reviewing their decision-making assumptions and outcomes• verifying them for validity and accuracyStep 3: Develop organizational mechanisms that will nurture dialoguing and appreciative inquiry