Presentation on theme: "Hazardous Materials Response"— Presentation transcript:
1 Hazardous Materials Response Henderson Fire DepartmentTactical Standard7th Edition
2 Objectives Explain Operations Level responsibilities Identify Technician Level responsibilitiesIdentify hazmat jurisdictional Incident Command responsibilitiesDescribe the 3 levels of hazmat incidentsName the resources utilized to identify hazardous materialsRecognize common hazmat containersDefine isolation perimeter, initial isolation zone and protective action distanceExplain the 3 scene control zonesDescribe defensive control actions
3 Objectives continuedIdentify the differences between gross decon, emergency decon, technical (formal) decon, and mass decon.Define the 3 hazmat incident strategiesExplain the difference between immediate concerns and primary objectivesIdentify the 9 DOT/UN Hazard classesDefine a polymerization reactionExplain the management components of a hazmat incidentUtilize Hazmat IQ system
4 Overview Henderson Fire Hazmat Training Hazmat Potential Training LevelIncident Command ResponsibilitiesNote: Hazmat Technician Level Training is conducted through the Training Division and the members of the Hazardous Materials Response Team (HMRT) at station 98. Hazmat Technician tactical standards are beyond the scope of this chapter.OverviewHenderson Fire Hazmat Training – This chapter is divided into two sections. The first section includes a brief review of general information provided in our initial and ongoing Operational Level hazmat training. The second part focuses on our approach to incident scene management. The Henderson Fire Department will utilize the Hazmat IQ incident evaluation system. Note: Hazmat Technician Level Training is conducted through the Training Division and the members of the Hazardous Materials Response Team (HMRT) at station 98. Hazmat Technician tactical standards are beyond the scope of this chapter.Hazmat Potential – A hazardous materials incident involves a substance that poses an unreasonable risk to people, the environment, and/or property. Large amounts of hazardous materials are stored within our community and travel through our city each day. Significant quantities of chlorine, anhydrous ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, boron trichloride, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, and titanium tetrachloride are all currently present in Henderson. Our history includes a major chlorine leak and a massive explosion. Officers must be prepared to respond and react effectively to these dangerous incidents.Training Level – All Henderson Fire Department personnel are trained to the Hazmat Operational Level, with the addition of 3 mission specific competencies: air monitoring (Recon), victim rescue (line of sight), and product control (small spills). Personnel assigned to station 98 are trained to Technician Level and operate as a Type III Hazardous Materials Response Team (HMRT).Operational Level Core CompetenciesPer NFPA 472, the Operational Level is responsible for the Awareness Level responsibilities, which include:Recognize the presence of hazardous materialsCall for the appropriate helpSecure the areaAttempt to identify the materialDetermine the appropriate actions per ERG.In addition, the Operations Level responder is required to:Analyze/Define the problemDesign a plan of defenseExecute the incident action planEvaluate the effectiveness of the planHFD Operations Level Mission Specific CompetenciesAir Monitoring and Sampling (recon)Victim Rescue & Recovery (line of sight rescue)Product Control (small spills)Operations level responders are primarily limited to those operations that are either non- intervention or defensive in nature. HFD Mission-Specific Exceptions Include: air monitoring and sampling (Recon), victim rescue and recovery (line of sight), and product control (small incidents involving gasoline, diesel, LPG and natural gas). SOP EM-16Technician Level Core CompetenciesHazmat Technician Level personnel are responsible for Awareness Level competencies, Operational Level competencies and must also obtain the following skills:In-depth knowledge of containersHave a general knowledge of chemistryIdentify properties of chemicals through technical researchUtilize metering devices and interpret dataEstimate container damagePredict the behavior of the productEstimate the size/scope of the incidentSelect the correct PPE and operate effectively within this ensembleImplement technical decontaminationDevelop an IAP based on risk managementOperate in an Offensive manner and control product releaseEvaluate progress of the IAPProperly terminate the incident by completing documentation, conduct debriefing and execute a post incident critiqueIncident Command Responsibilities – The Clark County Hazardous Materials Response Plan and the City of Henderson All Hazards Emergency Response Plan, both identify the Henderson Fire Department as the lead agency responsible for the overall management and coordination of hazardous materials incidents within the City of Henderson. The two exceptions include: 1) NHP will have jurisdictional authority for events on state roads and highways. HFD will work through a Unified Command with NHP to manage these events. 2) Incidents involving WMD or suspected terrorism, the HFD will provide a support role to the FBI, City of Henderson Police, or FEMA depending on the incident.
5 Incident Levels Level I Incident Level II Incident Level III Incident HFD onlyLevel II IncidentHazmat TeamLevel III IncidentState or FedsIncident LevelsIncident Levels – The Las Vegas valley defines hazmat incidents by three levels of response. Level I (least serious) to Level III (most serious). By defining the levels of response, an increasing level of involvement and necessary resources can be identified.The criteria used to determine the level are as follows:Extent of municipal, county, state and federal involvementLevel of technical expertise required at the sceneExtent of evacuation of civiliansExtent of injuries or deathsLevel I incident – This type of incident is within the capabilities of the local fire department having jurisdiction. Evacuation, if required will be in the immediate area of the incident. Examples would be: Small amount of gasoline or diesel fuel spilled from an automobile. A leak from a domestic natural gas line. Broken containers of consumer commodity, such as paint thinner, bleach, fertilizers, swimming pool chemicals etc.Level II Incident – These incidents require the services of a formal hazmat response team. A properly trained and equipped response team could be expected to use chemical protective suits, dike and confine within contaminated areas, perform plugging and patching, sample and test unknown substances. Examples of Level II incidents would be: A spill or leak requiring a large scale evacuation; any major accident, spillage or overflow of flammable liquids; Spill or leak of unknown chemicals; Accident involving extremely hazardous substances.Level III Incident – These incidents require resources from state agencies, federal agencies and or private industry. A large scale evacuation may be required. Successful handling of the incident will require a collective effort. Examples of Level III incidents would include: Those that require an evacuation crossing jurisdictional boundaries; Incidents beyond the capabilities of the local hazmat response team; Incidents that activate, in part or in whole, the federal response system.
6 Identifying Hazmat Marking Systems DOT/UN Marking System NFPA 704 Marking Systems – Marking systems provide information about the types of materials and the hazards of products being transported or stored. The two most common marking systems are the DOT/UN (transportation) and the NFPA 704 (fixed facilities).
7 DOT/UN Marking System 9 Hazard Classes 3 Packing Groups Placards Labels2 TablesIdentification NumbersDOT/UN Marking System – This system is utilized for the transportation of dangerous goods.9 Hazard Classes – these classes describe the primary hazard of the hazardous material. Several of these classes are divided into divisions (1.1, 1.2, 1.3 etc).Class 1: ExplosivesClass 2: GasesClass 3: Flammable & Combustible LiquidsClass 4: Flammable Solids, Dangerous When Wet, Spontaneously CombustibleClass 5: Oxidizers & Organic PeroxidesClass 6: Poisonous (Toxic) and Infectious substancesClass 7: Radioactive materialsClass 8: CorrosivesClass 9: Miscellaneous3 Packing Groups (I, II, III) DOT identifies the packing groups based upon the danger of the hazardous materials present. Packing Group I indicates great danger, Packing Group II indicates medium danger, and Packing Group III indicates minor danger.Placards & Labels – DOT labeling system for Bulk and Non-bulk containersPlacards – A placard is a diamond shaped color coded sign provided by shippers to identify the materials in transportation containers. Each of the nine hazard classes has a specific placard that identifies the class of material and assists the responder in identifying the hazards associated with the product. The hazard class number is displayed in the lower corner. Placards are required on Table 1 materials and bulk containers (greater than 1000 lbs).Labels – DOT-required labels provide the same information as vehicle placards. They are smaller and placed on non-bulk packages containing hazardous materials (less than 1000 lbs).Note: Placarded materials may have many hazards not reflected by the placard classification. The placard typically reflects the primary hazard. For example, many flammable materials are toxic as well.2 Tables (for placarding materials)Table 1 Materials – Shippers must always placard vehicles with any amount of the following classes:Explosives 1.1 – 1.3Poison Gasses 2.3Dangerous when wet 4.3Organic Peroxide 5.2Poison inhalation hazard 6.1Radioactive III 7Table 2 Materials – Requires shippers to placard vehicles carrying more than 1000 lbs of hazard classes not listed in table 1.Note: When a mixed load has more than 1000 lbs of total hazardous materials, but not more than 1000 lbs of any single material, a “DANGEROUS” placard may be applied instead of the specific hazard classes.Identification Numbers (UN number) – 4 digit numbers are assigned to hazardous materials to rapidly convey important information to emergency response teams. Each identification number is referenced to a guide number in the Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG). These guides provide specific instructions relating to appropriate response actions.
8 NFPA 704 SystemNFPA 704 System – This system is utilized to indicate the presence of hazardous materials at fixed storage facilities.The NFPA 704 System provides a signal that hazardous materials are present and alerts emergency responders to the degree of severity for health, flammability, instability or any special hazard. The system uses a rating scale from 0 to 4. The number 0 indicates a minimal hazard, whereas the number 4 indicates a severe hazard. The rating numbers are arranged on a diamond-shaped sign. The health rating is located on a blue background, the flammability hazard is positioned on a red background, and the instability hazard rating appears on a yellow background. At the six o’clock position, any special hazards are indicated on a white background. Only two special hazard symbols are presently authorized by NFPA: W an OX (respectively, indicating unusual reactivity with water or that the material is an oxidizer).
9 Reportable Quantity (RQ) 5 CategoriesNational Response Center (NRC)Reportable Quantity – A reportable quantity (RQ) is the amount of a chemical that the Department of Transportation (DOT) considers to be hazardous. There are only five reportable quantity categories: lb, 1000 lb, 100 lb, 10 lb, and 1 lb. When a shipper intends to transport a hazardous substance in an amount equal to or greater than its reportable quantity, DOT requires RQ to be entered on the shipping paper either before or after its basic description. Reportable quantities can also be found in Cameo Chemical SoftwareIf an accidental release of a chemical is equal to or greater than its reportable quantity the DOT requires mandatory notification to the National Response Center (NRC).
10 Information Resources Hazmat IQ System (HMIQ)Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG)NIOSH Pocket Guide (NPG)Cameo Chemical SoftwareWISER onlineMaterial Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)Shipping PapersPEAC SoftwareInformational ResourcesWhen the type of chemical is known, our hazard risk assessment will be driven by information found in the following resources: Hazmat IQ, ERG, NIOSH pocket guide, Cameo Chemicals, WISER, MSDS, Shipping PapersHazmat IQ System (HMIQ) – A tool used to assist first in Company Officers with critical decisions pertaining to performing line-of-sight rescue or recon at hazmat incidents. Using a four step, flip chart system to perform: 1) Initial size up based on chemical name to predict Hazards, Meters, PPE and Hot zone. 2) Continue size up based on container or placard. 3) Arrival and verification of chemical properties with other resources (NIOSH, ERG, CAMEO, WISER) 4) Entry, use of monitors to determine red-light green-light parameters for mission driven accomplishments of rescue or recon.Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG) - The ERG is a hazmat resource developed by the Department of Transportation (DOT). It is primarily a guide to help emergency responders quickly identify the hazards of the materials involved, and protect themselves and the general public during the initial response phase. The guidebook assists responders in making initial decisions. It does not address all possible circumstances.The ERG will recommend specific Initial Action Guides (orange pages) depending on the chemical. It is structured to identify chemicals in 3 different ways: 1) UN identification numbers (yellow pages) 2) Material name index (blue pages) 3) Placard/Container recognition (white pages). If the material in the yellow or blue index is highlighted, it means that the chemical has a toxic inhalation hazard. These chemicals should be further referenced in the green pages, which will provide an initial isolation and protective action distance.NIOSH Pocket Guide (NPG) - The NIOSH Pocket Guide to chemical hazards (NPG) is intended as a source of general information on several hundred chemicals. It presents key information in abbreviated form for chemicals found in the work environment. The NPG includes: chemical names, exposure limits, IDLH values, physical and chemical properties, personal protection recommendations, incompatibilities/reactivities, exposure routes, and first aid.Cameo Chemical Software - Cameo Chemical Software is a hazardous material research tool that is installed on all HFD MDC’s. It contains a library with thousands of datasheets containing response-related information and recommendations for hazardous materials that are commonly transported, used or stored in the United States. It also can be used to predict potential reactive hazards between chemicals.WISER online - WISER (Wireless Information System for Emergency Responders) is a system designed to assist emergency responders with a wide range of information on hazardous substances including: identification support, physical characteristics, health information, and containment and suppression advice. WISER can be downloaded to PC’s, smart phones, iPad, iPod, iTouch, and other PDAs.Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) - An MSDS is a detailed information bulletin prepared by the manufacturer or importer of a chemical that describes the following information: Hazardous ingredients, physical and chemical properties, physical and health hazards, routes of exposure, safe handling, first aid, and control measures. MSDSs are often the best source of detailed information. Facilities are required to have MSDSs on the premises. They should also be attached to shipping papers. An MSDS can also be obtained from the manufacturer, shipper, or CHEMTREC.Shipping Papers - Shipments of hazardous materials are required by DOT to be accompanied by shipping papers that describe: proper shipping name, hazard class, packing group, identification number, and the quantity of the material. The shipper’s and receiver’s name, address and emergency phone numbers are also required. The locations of these papers depend on the mode of transportation. In trucks and airplanes, they are placed near the driver or pilot. On ships they will be in the bridge or pilot house. On trains they will be either in the engine, caboose, or both.PEAC software – HMRT computer chemical assessment tool. Provides comprehensive information on hazardous substances, chemical reactivity, plus the ability to develop incident specific exclusion zones. This tool also provides the ability to share data with other remote personnel (i.e. Incident Command, EOC).
11 Scene Control Isolation Perimeter Initial Isolation Zone Solids – 75ftLiquids – 150ftGases – 330ftExplosives – ½ mile (800 yards)Initial Isolation ZoneProtective Action ZoneHazard Control ZonesHot, Warm, ColdScene ControlOne of the most important actions emergency responders can take in order to protect themselves and others, is to gain early control of the scene. Separating people from the potential source of harm is the best way to protect the life safety of all involved. Physical control of the scene begins by isolating the site using an isolation perimeter, removing people who are within this perimeter, and denying entry of unauthorized persons. The process continues by establishing an initial isolation zone, and a protective action zone. The IC must then evaluate and conduct evacuation or shelter-in-place of people located within the protective action zone. The process concludes by establishing hazard control zones (Hot, Warm, Cold).
12 Isolation Perimeter Unknown Chemical Solids – 75ft Liquids – 150ft Gases – 330ftExplosives – ½ mile (800 yards)Isolation Perimeter – The isolation perimeter is the first boundary established to prevent access by the public and unauthorized personnel. It may be established even before the hazardous material is positively identified. All able bodied people should leave this area immediately. Upon arrival to a potential hazardous materials incident in which the material is unknown, we will utilize the following Isolation Perimeters:Solids – 75 feetLiquids – 150 feetGases – 330 feetExplosives – ½ mileThe isolation perimeter can be expanded or reduced as needed per ERG once chemical is identified.
13 Initial Isolation Zone ERGKnown ChemicalLess than 30 minutes & not on fireInitial Isolation Zone – The initial isolation zone is a circular area with its radius equivalent to the initial isolation distance. The initial isolation distance can be found in the ERG (green pages) after the chemical is identified.* All persons within the initial isolation zone should be evacuated cross-wind, in order to avoid dangerous concentrations of the chemical.*Note: If hazardous materials are on fire or have been leaking for more that 30 minutes this ERG table does not apply. Seek more detailed information on the involved material on the appropriate orange bordered page.
14 Protective Action Zone ERGLess than 30 minutes & not on fireEvacuationShelter-in-placeProtective Action Zone – The protective action zone is the area immediately adjacent to and downwind of the initial isolation zone. This area is in immediate danger of being contaminated by airborne vapors within 30 minutes of material release. The protective action distance can also be found in the ERG (green pages) once the product is identified.**Note: If hazardous materials are on fire or have been leaking for more that 30 minutes this ERG table does not apply. Seek more detailed information on the involved material on the appropriate orange bordered page.Evacuation – Evacuate means moving all people from a threatened area to a safer place. To perform an evacuation, there must be enough time to warn people, for them to get ready, and to leave the area. Generally, if there is enough time for evacuation, it is the best protective action. Obviously you should begin by evacuating people nearby and downwind. Similar to fire incidents, we protect those in the most danger first. Evacuation can be a very labor intensive operation. The number of personnel needed varies with the size of the area and the number of people to be evacuated. The Emergency Management Coordinator (EMC), Reverse 911 and HPD can provide assistance with this operation.Shelter-in-place – Shelter-in-place means to direct people to go inside a building and to remain inside until the danger passes. When protecting people inside, direct them to close all doors and windows and to shut off all HVAC systems. The decision to shelter-in-place may be guided by the following factors:The population is unable to evacuate because of health care, detention, or educational occupancies.The material is spreading too rapidly.The material is too toxic to risk exposureVapors are heavier than air, and people are in a high-rise structure
15 Hazard Control Zones Hot Warm (contamination reduction zone) Cold Zone (support)Hazard Control Zones – These control zones are necessary to provide the rigid scene control needed at a hazmat incident. At the Operations Level we are responsible to establish these zones and control their boundaries (Hot, Warm, & Cold).Hot Zone (exclusion zone) – The hot zone is an area around the incident that has been contaminated by the released material. It is generally the same as the isolation distance and could include the protective action area. The zone extends far enough to prevent people outside the zone from suffering ill effects from the released material. Work performed inside the hot zone is generally limited to hazmat technicians.Warm Zone (contamination reduction zone) – The warm zone is an area abutting the hot zone and extending to the cold zone. It is considered safe for workers to enter briefly without special protective clothing, unless assigned a task requiring increased protection. The warm zone is used to support workers in the hot zone and to decontaminate personnel and equipment exiting the hot zone. Decontamination usually takes place within a corridor (decon corridor) located in the warm zone.Cold Zone (support) – The cold zone encompasses the warm zone and is used to carry out all other support functions of the incident. Workers in the cold zone are not required to wear personal protective clothing because this zone is considered safe. The command post, the staging area, and the triage/treatment area are located within the cold zone.
16 Spill Control/Confinement AbsorptionBlanketing/CoveringDike/Dam/Diversion/RetentionVapor SuppressionVentilationVapor DispersionDilutionDissolutionSpill Control/ConfinementThe main priority with spill control is confinement and the prevention of further contamination or contact with the hazardous material. Spill control minimizes the amount of contact the product makes with people, property, and the environment by limiting or confining the dispersion. HFD Operational Level responders may perform spill-control activities as long as they do not come in contact with the product and have the appropriate PPE. Operation level spill control is a defensive operation with the most important issue being the safety of responders. HFD technician level responders may perform spill control functions (plugging, patching, over packing, and utilizing A, B, C kits) in an Offensive strategy within their operational guidelines.HFD Operations Level Control/Confinement Tactics: Absorption, Blanketing/Covering, Dike/Dam/Diversion/Retention, Vapor Suppression, Ventilation, Vapor Dispersion, Dilution, and Dissolution.Absorption – The absorbent is spread directly on the hazardous material. The spilled material is picked up by the absorbent which acts like a sponge. After use, absorbents must be treated and disposed of as hazardous materials because they retain the properties of the material they absorb (i.e. flammability). This tactic is very effective for small liquid spills.Blanketing/Covering – This spill-control measure involves blanketing or covering the surface of the spill to prevent dispersion of materials such as powders or dusts. Blanketing or covering of solids can be done with tarps, plastic sheeting, salvage covers or other materials (including foam), but consideration must be given to compatibility between the material being covered and the material covering it. Blanketing of liquids is essentially the same as vapor suppression. HFD Operational Level responders may be allowed to perform blanketing/covering actions, depending on the hazards of the material, required PPE, the nature of the incident and the distance from which they must operate to ensure their safety.Dike/Dam/Diversion/Retention – These actions are taken to control the flow of liquid hazardous materials away from the point of discharge. Responders should construct curbs that divert the flow away from gutters, drains, storm sewers and flood control channels. It may be desirable to direct the flow to certain locations in order to capture and retain the material for later pickup. All diking materials that contacted the spilled material must be properly disposed of.Vapor Suppression – This action is taken to reduce the emissions of vapors at a hazmat spill. Firefighting foams are effective on spills of flammable and combustible liquids if the foam concentrate is compatible with the material.Ventilation – This tactic can be used to remove and/or disperse harmful airborne particles, vapors, or gasses – especially if the spill occurs indoors. Positive pressure and natural airflow can be very effective. Equipment must be explosive proof if used in a flammable atmosphere.Vapor Dispersion – The use of water streams to disperse airborne vapors. To be effective, the material being released must be water soluble or the vapor cloud must be able to be moved by water streams. Generally water vapor dispersion is not recommended unless an immediate life threat is present. This is because of the contaminated water runoff problems this method creates.Dilution – The application of water to a water soluble material to reduce the hazard. Dilution of liquid materials has few practical applications in terms of spill control; dilution is often used during decontamination procedures. The amount of water needed to reach an effective dilution increases overall volume and creates a runoff problem. Neutralization is sometimes an effective alternative. Adding a weak acid or base in order to bring a pH value closer to 7, should only be done by a hazardous material team or industrial specialist.Dissolution – The process of dissolving a gas in water. This tactic can only be used on water soluble gases such as anhydrous ammonia or chlorine. It is conducted by applying a fog stream to a breach in a container or directly onto the spill. Ideally the gas passes through the water and dissolves. When considering this option, first responders must remember that it may create additional problems with containment of runoff water. You may eliminate the plume but create hydrochloric acid on the ground.
17 Spill Control/Confinement HFD Tech Level Control/Confinement Tactics PluggingPatchingOver packingA-B-C KitsSpill Control/ConfinementHFD Technician Level Control/Confinement Tactics: Technician Level personnel may utilize all of the Operations Level control/confine tactics with the addition of the following:Plugging – The process of inserting a plug or material into a breach in a container to stop or control a leak. When using a plug to stop or contain a product the plug must be larger than the opening in the container and must be compatible with both the container and the products.Patching – Patching is often required for a large breach in a container. Commonly utilized patches include Box Patches, Hook Bolts and Patch, and Pipe Patches. In addition to prefabricated patches improvised materials may be used. It is important to consider the pressure of the material when selecting the patching method.Over packing – The process of placing a damaged drum or container inside another container. This method is commonly used for liquids and solids.A-B-C Kits - The Chlorine Institutes Emergency A,B,C Kits are specialized plugging and patching equipment utilized for 100/150 pound cylinders, 1 ton cylinders, and chlorine tank cars and DOT MC331 cargo tacks.
18 Decontamination 4 Types Gross Decon Emergency Decon Technical (formal) DeconMass Decon (wet & dry)DecontaminationDecontamination is the process of removing hazardous materials to prevent the spread of contaminants beyond a specific area and reduce contamination to levels that are no longer harmful. There are two general ways things can become contaminated. First “Primary (or direct)’ contamination occurs in the hot zone because of direct contact with a hazardous material. Second, “Secondary (or cross)” contamination takes place when a contaminant is carried from the hot zone by people, clothing, tools, air currents or water runoff. Decontamination is performed to remove contaminants from anything that has been contaminated.There are 4 basic types of decontamination: Gross, Emergency, Technical (formal) & Mass. HFD Operational Level responders can be called to assist with decontamination procedures.
19 Gross DeconGross Decontamination – This decontamination procedure is aimed at quickly removing the worst surface contamination from the victim, usually by flushing with water. It is typically one of the first steps of a technical (formal) decon corridor. It is also performed on victims during emergency decon, and persons requiring mass decon.
20 Emergency Decon HFD Emergency Decon Procedure HFD Hot Zone Cold Zone Clothes, PPE & Equip.HFDEntry TeamLitter TeamCleaning TeamRescue CrewVictimEmergency Decontamination – The goal of this procedure is to remove the contaminant from the victim as quickly as possible with no regard for the environment or property. It is considered a “quick fix” with definite limitations (a more thorough decon must follow). However, the advantage of eradicating a life threatening situation far outweighs any negative effects. Examples of situations where emergency decontamination may be needed include: removal of victim from line-of-sight rescue, failure of protective clothing, accidental contamination of responders, illness or injury to personnel in the hot zone, & immediate medical attention needed by the victim.HFD Emergency Decon Procedure (refer to SOP EM-32)Remove the victim from the contaminated area.Remove victims clothing and/or PPE rapidly – if possible, cutting from the top down in a manner that minimizes the spread of contaminants and protects head, face and airway.Wash immediately any exposed body parts with flooding quantities of water. If the patient is contaminated with a low solubility liquid use a pH neutral soap.Perform a quick head-to-toe rinse, wash, rinse (repeat as needed).Attempt to verify the patient is decontaminated using meters.Transfer victim to treatment personnel for assessment.Ensure the ambulance and hospital personnel are notified about the contaminant involved.Example: A decision is made to conduct a line-of-sight rescue. An entry team is assigned with “five alive monitors”. A decontamination plan is made and assigned to another crew. The entry team will make entry and quickly remove victim from hot zone and deliver to the edge of the decon area with the patients clothing removed and left in the hot zone. The entry team should place the victim, then back away; allowing the decon cleaning team to begin the wash and rinse cycle. (In order to avoid potential cross contamination, the entry team should not help with the decon of the victim. They should remain at a safe distance from the cleaning area and wait their turn to complete the process.) When the cleaning team is finished, they should step back and allow the transfer team to approach and move the patient out of the warm zone to the rescue crew. After the victim has been moved to the rescue crew, the entry team members can begin the decon process.Entry team members will be washed and rinsed thoroughly while wearing PPE. They will then remove PPE and leave it in a collection area within the warm zone. The last item they should remove will be their SCBA mask. If required, they will be washed and rinsed again after the removal of their PPE. After decon is complete, entry team members will proceed to cold zone for rehab and medical evaluation.Hot ZoneCold ZoneWarm Zone
21 Emergency Decon – Single Engine Entry HFDClothes, PPE & Equip.Rescue CrewEntry TeamCleaning TeamVictimExample with single engine company: A decision is made to make a line-of-sight rescue with single engine company. The officer assigns the engineer to pull a line and prepare a bucket of soap for emergency decon. The remaining crew members prepare the meters and make entry into the hot zone. The entry team removes the victim from the hot zone and places them just inside the warm zone – then step back. The engineer (in full PPE with SCBA) begins the wash and rinse cycle of the victim. If additional crews arrive they can be assigned to assist with decon and move the patient to the rescue crew. If additional help does not arrive the engineer may attempt to move the victim into the cold zone for transport by the rescue crew. After decon of the victim is complete the entry team will proceed through the decon process.The officer may initially determine to make entry with only two personnel and assign the remaining two crew members to decon. Make decisions based on the situation.HFDHot ZoneCold ZoneWarm Zone
22 Technical (formal) Decon Technical (formal) Decontamination – This procedure is used to thoroughly remove contaminants from responders (primarily entry team personnel). It is usually conducted in a formal decon line or corridor. This formal decontamination corridor runs through the warm zone connecting the hot zone and cold zone. The scope of technical decon is determined by the contaminant involved and by the Technical Level team members. This formal decon is usually 3-4 steps, beginning with a rinse and tool & equipment disposal, moving to a wash with soap, water and scrub brushes and finally a strip down of PPE and any other contaminated clothing. The hazardous material response team from HFD, ARMOR & LVFR have this equipment and will run this operation. Operational level responders can be assigned to help in this area if the correct PPE is available.
23 Mass Decon (wet) Cold Zone Warm Zone Hot Zone Mass Decontamination – Mass Decontamination is conducting gross decontamination to multiple people at one time in emergency situations. It is initiated where the number of victims and time constraints do not allow the establishment of an in-depth decontamination process. Mass Decon can either be wet or dry.Wet Mass Decon - This is a gross decon process that uses large volumes of low-pressure water to reduce the level of contamination. This operation includes removing victims clothing and flushing them with water from handheld lines and master streams from a fire apparatus. Wet decon will require: water, areas for both male & female, privacy to undress/dress, and a holding area for clothes and personal belongings.Cold ZoneWarm ZoneHot Zone
24 Mass Decon (dry)Dry Mass Decon – This system is designed for non-critical patients to clean themselves. Dry decon kits should be requested from command. OSO has 500 kits in their vehicle. More can be obtained. These kits include:A large trash bag for victims to undress inside (cut a hole for their head).A smaller bag for their clothesSani-wipes to clean off any residue.Armband and matching tag for clothes bag
25 3 Hazmat Strategies Non-intervention Defensive Offensive *Exceptions are three mission specific compentencies3 Hazmat StrategiesOperational Level responders are primarily limited to those operations that are either non-intervention or defensive in nature. Exceptions include the 3 mission specific competencies. Rescue operations may be considered after risk management has been applied and the Hazmat IQ evaluation process has been completed. Technician Level responders may operate in an Offensive strategy to control product release.Non-intervention - Non-intervention strategies are those operations in which the responders take no direct actions on the actual problem. Not taking any action is the safest strategy in many types of incidents and is the best strategy in certain types of incidents. An example is when a pressure vessel is exposed to fire and cannot be cooled adequately. A non-intervention mode is selected when one or more of the following circumstances exist:The facility Local Emergency Response Plan (LERP) calls for it based on a pre-incident evaluation of the hazards presentThe situation is clearly beyond the capabilities of respondersExplosions are imminentSerious container damage threatens a massive releaseIn such non-intervention situations, responders should take the following actions:Withdraw to a safe distanceReport conditions to dispatchEstablish incident commandCall for additional resourcesIsolate the area and deny entryCommence evacuation where neededDefensive - Defensive Operations are those in which the responders seek to confine the emergency to a given area, without directly contacting the materials involved. When operating in the defensive mode responders will take the following actions:Report scene conditions to dispatchDeclare Command Mode and StrategyEstablish initial isolation perimeter and deny entryEstablish and communicate control zonesUse appropriate defensive control tactics (divert, dike, dam etc.)Protect exposuresOffensive - Offensive operations are those where responders take direct aggressive action on the material, container, or process equipment involved in the incident. These operations may result in contact with the material and therefore require personnel to wear appropriate chemical protective clothing and respiratory protection. These operations will be conducted by HFD Hazmat Team, ARMOR or Las Vegas Hazmat Team.Note: A line-of-sight rescue operation will be performed from an Offensive Strategy, Fast Attack mode SOP EM-16. The on-scene IC will decide if a rescue attempt is safe and appropriate. The IC will complete a risk-benefit analysis and Hazmat IQ evaluation prior to ordering a rescue attempt.After rescue or recon is complete, no entry into the hot zone should be performed by Operations Level personnel.
26 Immediate Concerns & Primary Objectives Immediate Concerns (Ops level)Isolate the area & deny entryEvacuate or shelter-in-placeDike/dam/divert runoffEliminate ignition sourcesCool tanks if appropriatePrimary Objectives (typically not Ops level)Extinguish firesControl gas or vapor cloudsStop leaks (plug or patch)Turn off valvesImmediate Concerns & Primary ObjectivesImmediate Concerns - Immediate concern tasks are preventative measures that can be performed with minimal or no risk to the responder. These tasks can be accomplished quickly (immediately upon arrival) and easily (require no special equipment). Performing these tasks will stabilize the scene and diminish or control the potential effects of the incident. Executing immediate concern tasks increases life safety for the duration of the incident and prevents the situation from getting worse. Immediate concern tasks “buy time” for proceeding with other on-scene priorities, developing an overall plan of control, and implementing procedures for control. Examples of immediate concern tasks are:Isolating the areaDenying entry to the areaEvacuating or shelter-in-placeDiking and retaining the spill in a specific area for collectionDiverting liquid and runoff water into an isolated locationEliminating ignition sourcesCooling tanks involved in fire by accepted methodsPrimary Objectives - A primary objective is the operational goal at the incident. Execution of the tactical concepts of the primary objective should bring the incident to a conclusion. HFD Operational Level responders may identify the primary objective for a particular emergency, but Technician Level Hazmat Response Team Members are required to accomplish these tasks. Completion of the primary objective is often difficult and time consuming. Identifying the objective may only take minutes, but planning to execute it safely can require considerable time. Putting the plan in motion is directly dependant upon the time it takes to assemble the personnel and equipment required. Examples of primary objectives are:Extinguishing fires and stabilizing the incidentControlling gas or vapor cloudsStopping leaks by plugging or patchingTurning off valvesDiking and damming spills
27 Hazard Classes Explosives Gases Flammable & Combustible Liquids Flammable Solids, Dangerous When Wet & Spontaneously CombustibleOxidizers and Organic PeroxidesPoisonous (Toxic) and InfectiousRadioactiveCorrosiveMiscellaneous
28 Class 1 - Explosives Identification (1.1 – 1.6) Initial Isolation Perimeter = ½ mileExplosive incident – no fireExplosive incident – involving fireExplosives detonatedClass 1 – ExplosivesExplosives are used in military applications, mining, logging, construction, demolition operations, and terrorism incidents. Most explosives (except for old or damaged explosives) will not detonate during proper handling. However they must be protected from open flame, excessive heat, friction, impact, electrical shock, and chemical contamination. Explosives, particularly dynamite, may detonate during routine handling if they have been stored for many years and have started to decompose. Decomposition is indicated by either crystallized residue on the explosive or by the internal contents leaking through the exterior container. Explosives in this condition are very motion sensitive and require careful handling. Only properly trained bomb squad personnel should handle explosives.Identification: The name explosives are given to any substance or article (including device) that is designed to function by explosion. Explosive placards are orange in color. The UN Class and division number should also be posted on the placard. Explosives are divided into six divisions of decreasing hazards (1.1 the most dangerous – 1.6 the least). The compatibility group letter should also be posted, but is of no concern to first responders.Initial Isolation Perimeter: Explosives = ½ MileThe primary hazards of explosives are thermal (heat) and mechanical, may include: blast pressure wave, shrapnel, incendiary thermal effect, production of toxic gases, sensitivity to shock/friction, and ability to self-contaminate with age (increases their instability).Explosive incident not involving a fire – The immediate concern at an incident involving explosives without a fire is to withdraw and protect life safety. The primary objective is to isolate the area, deny entry, and evacuate. Specific actions include:Establish isolation zone of 500 ft in all directionsEliminate ignition sourcesRequest the Bomb Squad & ARMORVisually inspect load from a safe distance for evidence of damage, spills, or leaksDO NOT touch materialDO NOT operate radio transmitters within 330 ft of electronic detonatorsExplosive event involving a fire – The immediate concern at an incident involving explosives on fire or threatened by fire are to withdraw and protect life safety. The primary objectives are to isolate the area deny entry, and evacuate. Specific actions include:Establish isolation zone ½ to 1 mile in all directionsDO NOT fight a fire involving the cargo or storage area of explosivesUnder the discretion of the officer, an attack may be attempted on an exterior (outside) fire that has not impinged the cargo hold of the explosives.If an explosive has detonated - the first responders should:Be suspicious for other additional explosivesGain control of the sceneIsolate the areaInitiate MCI procedures if appropriate - rescue, triage, treatment and transportationControl fires and protect threatened exposuresThe following resources are available for assistance with incidents involving Class 1 explosives: ARMOR, LVFR Bomb Squad with C.B.R.N.E. 8, USAF Nellis E.O.D.
29 Class 2 Gases Identification: 2.1, 2.2, 2.3 Initial Isolation Perimeter = Gases 330ftBleve concernDo not extinguish flame from relief valveFlammable gas incidentsNo fire or with fireLPG leaksNatural gas leaks in a homeNatural gas leaks outsideClass 2 – GasesGases have a wide range of use in commercial, industrial, and residential settings. Gases are found in storage cylinders, large tanks, and distribution systems. The various types of gases present multiple different hazards including: fire, explosive, toxic, corrosive, oxidizing, asphyxiation, and cold (cryogenics). In addition, container failure due to over-pressurization can cause catastrophic damages. Initial operations should focus on identifying the type of gas in order to develop a specific strategy.Identification: The DOT defines a gas as any substance that is completely gaseous at 68 degrees Fahrenheit, at a standard pressure of 14.7 psi. The DOT/UN system separates gases into 3 divisions:2.1 Flammable Gases (red placard) – examples: hydrogen, methane, propane, isobutene2.2 Non-flammable Gases (green placard) – examples: carbon dioxide, helium, neon, nitrogen, argon (many of these are cryogenic)2.3 Inhalation Hazard or Toxic Gases (white placard with skull & crossbones) – These gases are further broken down in the ERG into 4 hazard zones (A, B, C, D). These zones are determined by the lethal concentration of the gas in air. Hazard zone ‘A” is the most lethal and “D” is the least. Examples: cyanide, chlorine, diphosgene, hydrocyanic acid. Note: According to the ERG, corrosive gases are given the guide numbers 118, 123, 124, 125.You may also see “Oxygen” on a yellow placard with the oxidizer symbol.Note: HFD personnel should consider every gas heavier than air until verified.Initial Isolation Perimeter: Gases = 330 feetWARNING – Boiling liquid expanding vapor explosions (BLEVE) should be a concern whenever fighting fires in and around compressed gas cylinders or tanks. Do not attempt to attack this type of emergency without a continuous water supply. A minimum of 250 gpm for small cylinders and 500 gpm for large tanks should be applied to both sides of the container. Unmanned streams should be utilized. If this cannot be accomplished, rescue and evacuation activities need to be performed quickly followed by total withdrawal from the area. These explosions will produce non-survivable conditions within 500 feet and create fragmentation from 2500 to 4000 feet. Container may fail violently within minutes of direct flame impingement. The signs of impending BLEVE include:Increasing pitch of escaping gas from the pressure relief valvePinging, popping and snapping sounds indicating stress to the vesselDry spots or visible steam appear on the tank, indicating insufficient coolingA rapid increase in visible flame coming from pressure relief valveBulge or discoloration of tank shellWARNING – Never extinguish flames that come from a pressure-relief valve. This action may allow flammable vapors to build in the area and re-ignite violently.Flammable Gas IncidentsFlammable Gas Leaks (No Fire) – The immediate concern at incidents involving flammable gas leaks without a fire is to prevent ignition. The primary objective is to turn off the flow of gas.Flammable Gas Leak (Involving a Fire) – The immediate concern at a flammable gas leak incident involving fire or flame impingement is to protect exposed tanks by cooling. The primary objective is to turn off the flow of gas.General Procedures for flammable gas emergenciesAfter staging uphill/upwind, establishing an initial isolation perimeter of 330 feet, and requesting the appropriate resources, the officer should quickly try to identify the following:What gas is involved?What type and size of container?Is there damage to the container?Is there a leak?Is there a fire?Is there flame impingement on the container?What is the water availability?Can the supply valve be shut off safely?Isolate and evacuate the area per ERG guidelines (initial isolation and protective action zones)Eliminate ignition sources (particularly with flammable gases)Protect any exposed tanks by cooling with water (if uninterrupted water supply and unmanned master streams can be placed safely).Attempt to locate and operate a remote shut off for the gas supply.Do not extinguish any gas fire unless the flow of gas can be secured.Execute any feasible rescues within HFD rescue parameters.Note: As a general rule, structural firefighting gear offers little to no protection from corrosive gases.Additional Actions for Specific GasesLPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas – propane) leaksControl ignition sources in immediate area for small leaksFor larger LPG leaks consider controlling ignition sources up to ½ mile down hill/windNatural gas leaks inside a homeSecure gas at the meter using shut off valveConfirm notification and response of Southwest Gas Co.Confirm evacuation/primary all clearPer SNFO SOP 07Natural gas leak outsideStage uphill/upwindConsider apparatus placement and availability of hydrantsAllow Southwest Gas to complete gas shut offPrepare to provide a protective handline for Southwest Gas workersAll incidents involving natural gas should be handed over to Southwest Gas for responsibility, monitoring, and mitigation.
30 Class 3 Flammable & Combustible Liquids IdentificationInitial Isolation Perimeter = Liquids 150ftFlammable & Combustible Liquid IncidentsNo fireInvolving fireClass 3 – Flammable & Combustible LiquidsEmergencies involving flammable and combustible liquids are one of the most common incidents, either directly or indirectly, that we respond to. Most of these chemical spills are based on transportation resources i.e. leaking vehicles, consumer based containers, motor vehicle collisions and refueling facilities. Incidents may also include large capacity highway tank trucks, rail tank cars, industrial storage facilities, and pipelines. The most commonly encountered chemicals in this classification include: gasoline, diesel fuel, motor oil, ethylene glycol (antifreeze), ethanol containing fuels (alcohol), acetone, mineral spirits, and B-T-X (Benzene, Toluene, & Xylene).Identification: Liquids that have low flash points and burn very easily are designated as flammable liquids (FP less than 100 degrees F). Liquids with higher flash points that do not burn as easily are called combustible liquids (FP greater than 100 degrees F). The flashpoint is the temperature in which a liquid will produce enough flammable vapors to ignite if the vapors come into contact with an ignition source.These chemicals are also “polar” or “non-polar”. Polar liquids readily mix with water (miscible). These chemicals will most commonly have alcohol, glycol, or solvent in the name. Polar liquids will always be flammable and any foam operations will require alcohol resistant class-B foam. Note: Polar flammable liquids will commonly burn with a clear or nearly clear flame (non-visible flame). Non-polar flammable/combustible liquids do not mix with water (gasoline, diesel, oil). Foam operations involving non-polar liquids will require class-B foam. Note: Non-polar flammable liquids burn “dirty”, bright flames and large amounts of dark smoke.Flammable & Combustible Liquid placards are red and include a flame symbol and one of the following labels: Flammable, Combustible, Gasoline, or Fuel Oil.Initial Isolation Perimeter: Liquids = 150 feetFlammable & Combustible Liquid IncidentsFlammable/Combustible Liquid Spills (No Fire) – The immediate concern is to prevent ignition of the fuel. The primary objective is to stop the flow of fuel. Other Actions:Isolate and evacuate area beyond specified perimeterEliminate all ignition sources within radius specified by ERGMost small spills can be handled with absorbentApply foam blanket to liquid poolIf possible, leaking material should be channeled away from the incident scene and covered with foam. If ignition occurs, the material can be allowed to burn under a controlled situation.Dike storm drains and utility access holes. If a reportable quantity enters these areas, notify the appropriate departments (Public Works, Risk Management).Minimize the use of water to limit runoff problemsFlammable/Combustible Liquid Spill (Involving a Fire) – The immediate concern is to cool all of the exposures including the tank. The primary objective is to stop the flow of fuel. Other Actions:Control small flammable liquid fires utilizing Class B foamFor larger spills on fire – allow the liquid to burn itself out – protect exposuresIf other containers are exposed to fire, cool with unmanned hose streams at a minimum of 500 gpm per side.Water should never be directed at or into a burning container of flammable liquid.
31 Class 4 Flammable Solids, Dangerous When Wet, Spontaneous Combustibles Identification: 4.1, 4.2, 4.3Initial Isolation Perimeter = Solids 75ftIncidents Involving Class 4 MaterialsNo fireInvolving fireClass 4 – Flammable Solids, Dangerous-When-Wet, or Spontaneous Combustible MaterialsAccidents involving these substances are relatively rare. When an accident does occur, these materials can prove to be difficult to handle. For the most part, extinguishment of Class 4 materials is not a primary object of operational responders. Our actions will generally be limited to securing the scene, evacuation, establishing control zones, and requesting technical help.Identification: Class 4 is divided into three divisions:4.1 Flammable Solids – Metal powders, self-reactive materials that undergo a strong exothermal decomposition, and explosives that are wetted to suppress their explosive properties fall into the flammable-solid class division. Flammable solid placard is red and white striped with the words Flammable Solid4.2 Spontaneously Combustible Materials – (also called pyrophoric materials) can ignite without an external ignition source after coming into contact with air. Spontaneously combustible materials can be either liquids or solids. The top halves of these placards are white, with the bottom half red. The words Spontaneously Combustible are written on the placard.4.3 Dangerous When Wet – Material that, by contact with water, is liable to become spontaneously flammable or a toxic gas. These placards are blue with the words Dangerous When Wet.Initial Isolation Perimeter: Solids – 75 feetIncidents Involving Class 4 MaterialsFlammable Solids, Dangerous-When-Wet, or Spontaneous Combustible Materials spills (No Fire) – If technical assistance is not available, and definite answers cannot be found then isolate the area and confine the material until it can be removed.Flammable Solids, Dangerous-When-Wet, or Spontaneous Combustible Materials (Involving a Fire) – The immediate concern is to protect exposures and the primary objective is to let the material burn until it is consumed. Do not attempt to extinguish the fire with water. Many of these products react violently with water and produce dangerous quantities of flammable and toxic gases.
32 Class 5 Oxidizers and Organic Peroxides Identification: 5.1 & 5.2Initial Isolation Perimeter = Solids 75ft, Liquids 150ftIncidents Involving Class 5 MaterialsNo fireInvolving fireClass 5 – Oxidizers and Organic PeroxidesEmergencies involving oxidizers and organic peroxides are unpredictable. They can react suddenly, violently and without warning to friction, shock, heat and light. Some of these materials also have a maximum safe storage temperature (MSST). When this temperature is exceeded these “nonflammable solids” can spontaneously detonate. Dealing with these substances is generally beyond our abilities.Identification: Class 5 is divided into two divisions:5.1 Oxidizers – These chemicals contain oxygen in their molecular structure and easily release the oxygen when heated. Most oxidizers are noncombustible but accelerate the burning of combustible materials. When combined with organic materials these mixtures can ignite spontaneously.5.2 Organic Peroxides – These substances are organic materials that are combined with a peroxide. The danger of these materials is that they contain both oxygen and fuel. Organic peroxides are very unstable and potentially explosive. They easily ignite other combustibles and could spontaneously ignite when exposed to air. Note: To an extent all organic peroxides are shock sensitive, heat sensitive, and light sensitive.Important: When dealing with an organic peroxide the IC should consider an isolation distance of ½ mile due to the explosive nature of these chemicals.Initial Isolation Perimeter: Solids 75 feet – Liquids 150 feet in all directionsIncidents Involving Class 5 Materials - Oxidizers and Organic PeroxidesOxidizers and Organic Peroxides incidents (No Fire) – Immediate concern is to prevent ignition by isolating combustibles from the material. The primary objectives are to isolate and confine the material until it can be removed.Oxidizers and Organic Peroxides incidents (Involving a Fire) – The immediate concern is to protect exposures. The primary objective is to withdraw and allow the product to burn.
33 Class 6 Poisonous & Infectious Materials (Toxic) Identification: 6.1 & 6.2Initial Isolation Perimeter = Solids 75ft, Liquids 150ftIncidents Involving Class 6 SubstancesNo fireInvolving fireClass 6 – Poisonous Materials and Infectious SubstancesEmergencies involving Class 6 materials can be very dynamic. These products are known to be toxic to humans and animals. They can include everything from HIV, rabies, and botulism to commercial grade pesticides, herbicides and cyanides. Poisonous materials can be in the form of solids and liquids. The greatest danger associated with poisonous materials spills is the health threat. Poisonous materials can harm emergency responders in any one of the following ways:Physical contact with the materialInhalation of vaporsInhalation of the materials products of combustionContact with contaminated runoff waterContact with contaminated clothingThese materials pose a high risk of secondary contamination and exposure to the responder. Any responder, patient, or equipment that has potentially been contaminated/exposed should be properly decontaminated prior to leaving the warm zone.Identification: Class 6 is divided into two divisions.6.1 Poisonous Materials – A material other than a gas that is known to be toxic to humans. Examples: pesticides, cyanides, and arsenic. This placard is white with a skull and crossbones and the word POISON.6.2 Infectious Substance (also called etiological agent) – Material known to contain or suspected of containing a pathogen. A pathogen is a virus or microorganism that has the potential to cause the disease in humans and animals. Examples: HIV, rabies, botulism, anthrax. Infectious substances do not have a placard, but they should be labeled. The label will include the biohazard symbol and will either state: Infectious Substance, Biohazard, or Etiological Agent.Initial Isolation Perimeter: Solids – 75 feet, Liquids – 150 feetIncidents Involving Class 6 Materials - Poisonous Materials and Infectious SubstancesPoisonous Materials and Infectious Substances (No Fire) – The immediate concern is to confine the spread of the material. The primary objective is to isolate the area.Confine liquids by diking, damming, and diverting from a safe distance. Attempt to divert to a safe collection point.Protect storm drains, sewer drains, and waterways.For solid materials, confine by placing a tarp, salvage cover or plastic sheet over the spill.Avoid contact with any poisonous materialPoisonous Materials and Infectious Substances (Involving a Fire) – The immediate concerns are to protect life safety and confine the spread of the material. The primary objectives are to isolate the area and let the material burn.Protect exposuresStay out of the products of combustion
34 Class 7 Radioactive 3 Types: Alpha, Beta & Gamma Identification: Radioactive I, II, III2 Packaging Categories: Type A & BInitial Isolation Perimeter = Start at 330ft – refer to ERGIncidents Involving Radioactive MaterialALARANo fireInvolving fireClass 7 – Radioactive MaterialsRadioactive materials are those that spontaneously emit ionizing radiation. Compared to non-ionizing radiation, such as radio waves or microwaves, ionizing radiation is considerably more energetic. When ionizing radiation passes through material like air, water and living tissue it deposits enough energy to break molecular bonds and displace (remove) electrons from atoms or molecules. This electron displacement may lead to changes in living cells.There are three basic types of radiation: Alpha, Beta and Gamma. Alpha radiation is the least penetrating. The alpha particle can only travel a few inches in air. Clothing or human skin can stop the travel. However, alpha particles can be inhaled or ingested. Beta radiation is more penetrating. Beta particles will travel several yards in the air and can penetrate clothing and skin. Structural turnout gear may not stop their penetration, but aluminum foil will. Both alpha and beta particles will cause injury if they enter the body. Gamma radiation is similar to X-rays. Gamma rays are extremely penetrating and travel at nearly the speed of light. Dense material is required to shield against gamma radiation. It takes 4 ½ inches of concrete to reduce gamma radiation by one-half. Time, distance and shielding are the three ways we can protect ourselves from radiation exposure.Identification: Transported radioactive materials are required to be labeled. There are three label categories: Radioactive I, Radioactive II, and Radioactive III (with Radioactive III being the most dangerous). The DOT requires a radioactive placard on a transport vehicle when carriers are transporting Radioactive III substances, or if they are carrying a “highway route controlled quantity”. These placards and labels are white and yellow and contain the radioactive symbol. There are two categories of packaging for Class 7 materials:Type A – This packaging contains low-level commercial radioactive shipments. These containers include cardboard boxes, wooden crates, cylinders and metal drums. Radiopharmaceuticals are examples of low level radioactive material shipped in these containers.Type B – This packaging is stronger and used for more highly radioactive shipments. These containers include, steel reinforced concrete casks, lead pipe, and heavy gage metal drums. They can survive serious accidents and fire without release of the radioactive material.Note: ERG guide numbers are specific for radioactive materialsInitial Isolation Perimeter: Due to complexity of radioactive material, refer to ERGIncidents Involving Class 7 Radioactive MaterialsThe three primary ways emergency responders can protect themselves against exposure to radiation are time, distance, and shielding. This protection is sometimes referred to as the ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) method. Regardless of the source, the shorter time you are exposed, the farther away you are, and the greater the shielding is in front of you, the smaller the dose of radiation will be.Radioactive Material Spills (No Fire) – The immediate concern is to confine the spread of the material. The primary objectives are to isolate the area and deny entry.Radioactive Material Spills (Involving a Fire) – The immediate concern is to confine the spread of the material. The primary objectives for a fire involving radioactive materials are divided into two general categories:If the fire can be extinguished immediately (small fire), without undue risk to the responders, it should be extinguished (avoid the smoke and apply water from a safe distance). Dike, dam and retain water run off. Responders should then isolate the area, deny entry, and wait for a hazard specialist.If the fire cannot be controlled immediately, do not combat the fire. Evacuate people 1500 feet in all directions. Keep all people out of the smoke cloud. Isolate the area, deny entry, and wait for a hazard specialist.
35 Class 8 Corrosives Identification: pH, placard, research Initial Isolation Perimeter = Solids 75ft, Liquids 150ftIncidents Involving CorrosivesNo fireInvolving fireClass 8 – CorrosivesCorrosives are materials (either acids or bases) that corrode, degrade, or destroy human skin or metals. The pH of a material is used to determine whether it is an acid or a base. Acids have a pH number of 1-6 and bases have pH numbers of A pH of 7 is neutral. The terms caustic and alkaline are also used to refer to bases.Most bases, or caustic chemicals, are derived from salts, they are almost never flammable. However, there are a few exceptions so it is important to verify chemical properties in the NIOSH Guide. The primary hazard with caustic chemicals is their ability to react with water thus generating heat and toxic gases.Acids typically have complex chemical formulas, but will contain “acid” in their names. Unlike most caustic chemicals, the majority of acids are flammable. They also produce toxic gases which are heavier than air.Due to the vast amount of chemicals and associated hazards of Class 8 materials, each corrosive spill should be researched thoroughly by: ERG, NIOSH, WISER, & Cameo.Identification: Corrosive materials shipped in bulk will include a placard. This placard is white & black, with the corrosive symbol above and the word CORROSIVE printed on the lower half. Many will also include a POISON GAS or INHALATION HAZARD placard.Initial Isolation Perimeter: Solids – 75 ft, Liquids – 150 ftIncidents Involving Class 8 Corrosive MaterialsCorrosive Material Spill (No Fire) – The immediate concern is to confine the spread and not dilute the material. The primary objectives are to turn off the flow, isolate the area and deny entry.Confine the spread without coming into contact with materialKeep out of storm drains, sewer systems, or other waterwaysKeep corrosives from contacting organic materials, or other corrosivesDo not use water (Water makes the problem worse).If research indicates, you may use the appropriate foam to control vaporsFor solid corrosives, cover with salvage covers or plastic sheetingPerform emergency decon on exposed victims (remove clothing and flush with water)Corrosive Material Spill (Involved in a Fire) – The immediate concern is to confine the spread of the material and protect exposures. The primary objectives are to turn off the flow, isolate the area and deny entry.If a corrosive spill is burning, protect exposures – do not extinguish the fire.Avoid the smoke from burning corrosives (it can also be corrosive).
36 Class 9 MiscellaneousIdentification: placard (black & white vertical stripes on top – solid white lower)Initial Isolation Perimeter = Solid 75ft, Liquid 150ft, Gases 330ftClass 9 – Miscellaneous Dangerous GoodsThis is a material which presents a hazard during transport but which is not included in any other hazard class. This class includes any material which has an anesthetic, noxious or other similar property which could cause extreme annoyance or discomfort, or any material (not included in any other hazard class) which meets the definition of a hazardous substance or hazardous waste.Identification: A miscellaneous placard contains black & white vertical stripes on the top half and a solid white lower half.Initial Isolation Perimeter: Solids – 75 ft, Liquids – 150 ft, Gases 330 ft
37 Polymerization Identification: “P” after ERG guide number,Presence of “=“ sign in formula,Stated in Incompatibilities/Reactivities (NIOSH),Heat gun (increasing temp)Incidents involving a polymerization reactionIsolate area & deny entryConfirm polymerizationIdentify materialEvacuate areaPolymerizationAll emergency responders should become familiar with the process of polymerization. This is a unique chemical reaction that combines smaller molecules into huge macromolecular chains. The results of these reactions are called polymers. There are many different kinds of polymers. We use these products everyday to improve our quality of life. Examples include: Styrofoam, plastics, foam rubber, polyester, nylon, PVC, acrylics, epoxy resins, Teflon, GORE-TEX, Kevlar, etc.Polymerization reactions are most common with Class 3 (Flammable Liquids). There are Class 2 (Flammable Gases) that can polymerize. These reactions are triggered when a susceptible chemical comes into contact with a catalyst. Unfortunately, catalysts can include light, heat, water, air, acids, contamination, or other chemicals coming into contact with the product. Once the process begins it cannot be stopped. The progression will end when the entire product has completed polymerization.As with all chemical reactions, heat and pressure are byproducts of polymerization. If the pressure cannot be released, catastrophic container failure is possible. Containers include pressure relief valves, but these can become clogged by the resulting product of the polymerization process. Unlike BLEVE situations, cooling these containers with hose streams will not stop the reaction.Chemicals that are prone to polymerize are usually transported “inhibited”. The manufacturer adds a chemical inhibitor to the product, which stabilizes the chemical against polymerization. Due to the cost of inhibitors, the shipped chemical is commonly only supplied enough inhibitor for the estimated trip. Any damage to the vessel releasing the inhibitor, or delay in transport, could trigger the beginning of a polymerization reaction.Identification: There are several ways to identify a chemical that is prone to polymerization.The presence of a “P” in the ERG guide number (example: 116P)The presence of an = sign in the chemical formula (example: CH2=CHCH=CH2)Polymerization will be listed in the “Incompatibilities and Reactivities Box” in the NIOSH Pocket GuideNote: The telltale sign that a polymerization reaction is taking place is the increasing temperature of a vessel (container) in the absence of any heat or flame impingement. Utilize a heat gun to identify temperature changes.Incidents Involving a Polymerization Reaction – The immediate concern is to isolate the area, confirm the polymerization reaction, and identify the material. The primary objectives are to complete the evacuation per ERG, isolate the area and deny entry.
38 Managing Hazmat Incident Basic ResponseKnow your limitationsDispatch informationAdditional informationResourcesPre-entry observation stopArrivalManaging a Hazardous Materials IncidentAn excellent working definition of hazardous materials: Hazardous materials are things that can escape from their containers and hurt or harm the things they touch. Hazardous material incidents have the following common elements:Material or materials presenting hazards to people, the environment, or propertyContainers that have failed or have potential to failExposure or potential exposure to people, the environment, and/or propertyWhen considering mitigation actions at a hazardous materials incident it is important for emergency responders to understand the difference between the hazards and risks associated with the materials. The physical and health hazards associated with hazardous materials include: thermal, radiological, asphyxiation, chemical, etiological, mechanical and psychological. Risk, on the other hand, deals more with probabilities – the probability of getting injured, or suffering damage because of the hazard present. Assessing the risk is a matter of determining the “ifs” of a situation: If I do this, then this might happen. If I don’t do this, then this could occur. The Incident Commander will always conduct a risk to benefit analysis (utilizing SOP EM-41 Risk Management) prior to making strategic decisions.We will risk our lives a lot, in a calculated manner, to save savable lives.We will risk our lives a little, in a calculated manner, to save savable property.We will not risk our lives at all for lives or property that are already lost.Actions in a calculated manner requires:Incident Command establishedProper personal protective equipmentAccountability system establishedSafety procedures in placeContinuous risk assessment by all membersOperations Level responders are primarily limited to those operations that are either non- intervention or defensive in nature. HFD Mission-Specific Exceptions Include: air monitoring and sampling (Recon), victim rescue and recovery, and product control (small incidents involving gasoline, diesel, LPG and natural gas).Technician Level responders may operate in any of the three strategies: Offensive, Defensive or Non-intervention.Basic Hazmat ResponseKnow your Limitations - People call the fire department when they are unsure of whom else to call. This includes hazardous materials incidents. At most hazardous materials incidents, the fire department is usually the first one requested and the first to arrive. We should choose cautious assessment over aggressive action upon arrival. Almost two-thirds of all victims at hazmat incidents are would be rescuers. It is critical that personnel arriving before a hazardous materials response team recognize their limitations and work within those boundaries. It is also imperative that hazardous material response teams develop IAP based on good risk management evaluation.Dispatch Information – Dispatch information for a possible hazmat incident might be limited at best. Be alert to responses to industrial, manufacturing, shipping & storage occupancies. Transportation accidents involving commercial shipping trucks and vans should also warrant caution. Utilize your maps to help identify other clues. Learn your district and be aware of any unique hazards. Hazmat should always be on your radar. It can show up on any call.EnrouteAdditional Information – Once you realize that you have a possible hazardous material incident you should begin to gather information while en-route. If dispatch has not already provided certain information you should request the following:Weather conditions – wind speed and direction, temperature, humidityWhat materials are involved? If the material is identified begin evaluation process utilizing Hazmat IQ.How much has been spilled?What is the approximate total quantity of the material, the container size and the condition of the container?Is there a fire involved?Do any people need rescuing?Are there any control actions being conducted?Resources – Depending on the dispatch and additional information, request appropriate resources.Confirm or request the response of the Battalion Chief.Confirm or request the response of the HFD HMRT (if appropriate).Request additional fire department resources as needed.Confirm or request the notification and/or response of the Emergency Management Coordinator.Confirm or request ARMORRequest LVFR HMRT (if appropriate)Consider HPD for scene controlPre-entry Observation stop – Always approach the scene of a hazardous materials incident from uphill, upwind and upstream if possible. Include a remote pre-entry observation stop to briefly assess the situation. Binoculars can be helpful for this assessment. Report any unusual conditions to dispatch and reevaluate the situation.ArrivalProvide a brief initial reportStage assignment up-wind, up-grade.Establish CommandEstablish Command Mode (Investigative, Fast Attack or Command). Note: HFD responders who are still operating as the IC entering the Hot Zone to perform a mission specific operation (recon, line of sight rescue or product control) will operate in the Fast Attack Mode.Identify Strategy (Non-Intervention, Defensive, Offensive) utilizing risk management profile and risk management tool (value, time, size). Note: HFD personnel will be in the Offensive Strategy while performing rescue, recon or product control in the hot zone.Establish an initial isolation perimeter based on physical form of hazardous material.Solids feet in all directions.Liquids feet in all directions.Gases feet in all directions.Unknown/Explosive ½ mile in all directions.Isolate the area of non-essential personnel.Deny Entry into Hot ZoneControl Exit from Hot Zone (direct contaminated victims to area of safe refuge)Establish and communicate hazard control zones based chemical identification (Hot, Warm, Cold Zones)Identify immediate hazards and communicate to dispatchIdentify the material and conduct Hazmat IQ evaluation.Determine Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) requirements.Perform line of sight rescue or Recon within acceptable risk parameters (Hazmat IQ & Risk Assessment). Per SOP EM-16Note: The on scene IC will decide if a line-of-sight rescue or Recon is safe and appropriate. The IC will complete a risk-benefit analysis and Hazmat IQ evaluation prior to ordering a rescue or recon attempt AND the following conditions must be met:The product is positively identified or within HMIQ defined risk parametersResponders have the appropriate PPE (full turnouts, SCBA) and monitors as required by Hazmat IQThe risk to responders is justifiedAll Rescue or Recon operations will comply with the appropriate Hazmat IQ “red lights”A life can be saved or serious injury preventedEstablish decontamination plan prior to entry in hot zonePerform decontamination procedures per SOP EM-32 DecontaminationEvaluate the need to evacuate the area or order a Shelter-In-Place. Utilize dispatch, EMC, HPD and other HFD resources to conduct the evacuation/shelter-in-place operation.If possible confine the spill and control run-offControl ignition sources.Develop an intervention strategy to terminate the event (HMRT).Notify COH utilities and Public works through dispatch if a liquid or solid material is involved to ensure protection of water and waste water systems.Notify Fire Code Enforcement through dispatch if the hazardous material release is equal to or greater than the reportable quantity for the substance.The Battalion Chief or Emergency Management Coordinator will notify the National Response Center (NRC) for spills equal to or greater than the Reportable Quantity.
39 Hazmat IQHazmat IQ powerpoint located on sharepoint.