3 Learning Objectives After attending this session Students will be able to recollect the different mobile service providers in India.Students will be able to understand the difference between different types of data cards.Students will be able to understand the difference between post-paid and prepaid mobile.
4 OverviewThe term ‘Mobile Service’ refers to the group of services offered by the Telecom Service Providers (TSP).TSP’s are also known as Mobile service providers.The mobile services include all the services such as Voice call, SMS, wireless data and all other Value Added Services (VAS).The first wireless Internet access became available in as part of the second generation (2G) of mobile phone technology.Higher speeds became available in 2001 and 2006 as part of the third (3G) and fourth (4G) generations.
5 Mobile Service Providers A mobile network operator or MNO is a provider of wireless communications services that owns or controls all the elements necessary to sell and deliver services to an end user .MNO is also known as a wireless service provider, wireless carrier, cellular company, or mobile network carrier.MNO may also sell access to network services at wholesale rates to mobile virtual network operators or MVNO's.
6 Mobile Service Providers A key defining characteristic of a mobile network operator is that an MNO must own or control access to a radio spectrum license from a regulatory or government entity.A second key defining characteristic of an MNO is that an MNO must own or control the elements of the network infrastructure that are necessary to provide services to subscribers over the licensed spectrum.A mobile network operator has the necessary provisioning, billing and customer care computer systems needed to sell, deliver and bill for services.
7 Mobile Service Providers In India Sl NoMobile Service ProviderTechnology used by the service provider1AirtelGSM , EDGE , HSPA , TD-LTE2Reliance CommunicationsCdmaOne , EVDO , GSM , HSPA , WiMAX3VodafoneGSM , EDGE, HSDPA4Idea CellularGSM, EDGE, HSPA5BSNLGSM, EDGE, HSDPA , HSPA+, CdmaOne, EVDO, WiMAX6Tata DoCoMoCDMA , EVDO , GSM, EDGE , HSPA+7AircelGSM, EDGE, HSDPA8UninorGSM, EDGE9MTS IndiaCDMA, EVDO10VideoconGSM, GPRS, EDGE11MTNLGSM, HSDPA, CDMA12Loop Mobile
8 Wireless Data CardsA mobile broadband modem is also known as a connect card or data card, is a type of modem that allows a laptop, a personal computer or a router to receive Internet access via a mobile broadband connection.A mobile Internet user can connect using a wireless modem to a wireless Internet Service Provider (ISP) to get Internet access.Standalone mobile broadband modems are designed to be connected directly to one computer.Mobile broadband modems have built-in routing capabilities which provides traditional networking interfaces such as Ethernet, USB and Wi-Fi.
9 MiFi MiFi stands for "My Wi-Fi". MiFi is used as a name for wireless routers that act as mobile Wi-Fi hotspots.In many countries MiFi is a Novatel Wireless brand, but in the UK, mobile operator 3 owns the "MiFi" trademark.A MiFi device can be connected to a mobile phone (cellular) carrier and provide internet access for up to ten devices.The MiFi works at a distance up to 10 m (30 ft) and will provide internet or network access to any Wi-Fi-enabled peripheral device.
10 SIM, USIM & RIUMA subscriber identity module or subscriber identification module (SIM) is an integrated circuit.SIM securely stores the international mobile subscriber identity (IMSI) and the related key used to identify and authenticate subscribers on mobile telephony devices.A SIM card contains its unique serial number (ICCID), international mobile subscriber identity (IMSI), security authentication and ciphering information, temporary information related to the local network, a list of the services the user has access to and two passwords: a personal identification number(PIN) for ordinary use and a personal unblocking code (PUK) for PIN unlocking.
11 SIM, USIM & RIUMThe SIM was initially specified by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute and the specification describes the physical and logical behaviour of the SIM.With the development of UMTS the specification work was partially transferred to3GPP.In UMTS SIM with advanced features is known as USIMRemovable User Identity Module (R-UIM) is a card developed for CdmaOne/ CDMA2000 ("CDMA") handsets that extend the GSM SIM card to CDMA phones and networks
12 SIM DesignThere are three operating voltages for SIM cards: 5 V, 3 V and 1.8 VThe microcontrollers used for SIM cards come in different configurations.ROM size is between 64 KB and 512 KBRAM size is between 1 KB and 8 KB andEEPROM size is between 16 KB and 512 KB.The ROM contains the operating system of the card and might contain applets where the EEPROM contains the so-called personalization, which consists of security keys, phone book, SMS settings, etc., and operating system patches.
13 SIM Card InformationSIM cards store network-specific information such as ICCID, IMSI, Ki, LAI and Operator-Specific Emergency Number.The SIM also stores other carrier-specific data such as the SMSC number; Service Provider Name (SPN), Service Dialling Numbers (SDN), Advice-Of-Charge parameters and Value Added Service (VAS) applications.SIM cards data capacities varies from 32 KB to at least 128 KB. ( A maximum of 250 contacts to be stored on the SIM)32 KB SIM stores 33 Mobile Network Codes (MNCs) or "network identifiers", the 64 KB SIM stores 80 MNCs.
14 ICCIDEach SIM is internationally identified by its integrated circuit card identifier (ICCID).ICCIDs are stored in the SIM cards and engraved or printed on the SIM card body during a process called personalisation.The ICCID is defined by the ITU-T recommendation E.118 as the Primary Account Number.According to E.118, the number is up to 19 digits long, including a single check digit calculated using the Luhn algorithm.
15 ICCID – Sub PartsIssuer identification number (IIN): Maximum of seven digits:Major industry identifier (MII), 2 fixed digits, 89 for telecommunication.Country code, 1–3 digits, as defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164.Issuer identifier, 1–4 digits.Individual account identification: Its length is variable.Check digit - Single digit calculated from other digits using the Luhn algorithm.
16 International mobile subscriber identity (IMSI) SIM cards are identified on their individual operator networks by a unique International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI).Mobile network operators connect mobile phone calls and communicate with their market SIM cards using their IMSIs. The format is:The first 3 digits represent the Mobile Country Code (MCC).The next two or three digits represent the Mobile Network Code (MNC).The next digits represent the Mobile Subscriber Identification Number (MSIN).The total length of the IMSI should be less than 15 digits.
17 Authentication key (Ki) The Ki is a 128-bit value used in authenticating the SIMs on the mobile network.Each SIM holds a unique Ki assigned to it by the operator during the personalization process.The Ki is also stored in a database (AuC) on the carrier's network.The SIM card is designed not to allow the Ki to be obtained using the smart-card interface.The GSM cryptographic algorithm for computing SRES_2 from the Ki has certain vulnerabilities that can allow the extraction of the Ki from a SIM card and the making of a duplicate SIM card.
18 Location area identity (LAI) The SIM stores network state information, which is received from the Location Area Identity (LAI).Operator networks are divided into Location Areas, each having a unique LAI number.When the device changes locations, it stores the new LAI to the SIM and sends it back to the operator network with its new location.If the device is power cycled, it will take data off the SIM, and search for the prior LAI.
20 MOBILE TARIFF- PREPAID MOBILE A prepaid mobile phone has access to most if not all of the services offered by a mobile phone operator, although the charges for these services may differ from customers with the same operator who have a post-paid contract.In addition, a prepaid phone has a balance which can be queried at any time, and also topped up periodically.Credit purchased for a prepaid mobile phone may have a time limit, for example 90 days from the date the last credit was added.In these cases, customers who do not add more credit before expiration will lose their remaining balance.
21 PREPAID MOBILE – Top up Methods Direct from a bank account using an ATMFrom a portal using credit card or debit cardIn a retail store by purchasing a "top-up" or "refill" card at retail.These cards are stamped with a unique code (often under a scratch-off panel) which must be entered into the phone in order to add the credit onto the balance.Direct from some open-loop prepaid cards featuring a mobile refill service.Through electronic reloading where Retailer's SIM card is used to reload a mobile phone by entering the mobile number and choosing the amount to be loaded.
22 Post-paid MOBILEThe post-paid mobile phone is a mobile phone for which service is provided by a prior arrangement with a mobile service provider (MSP).The user in this situation is billed after the fact according to their use of mobile services at the end of each month.Typically, the customer's contract specifies a limit or "allowance" of minutes, text messages etc., and the customer will be billed at a flat rate for any usage equal to or less than that allowance. Any usage above that limit incurs extra charges.This service is better for people with a secured income.
23 Post-paid MOBILE ‘Post-usage' models are Credit history/Contractual commitment: This is the basis on which the service provider is able to trust the customer with paying their bill when it’s due and to have legal resource in case of non-paymentService tenure: Most post-paid providers require customers to sign long term (1-3 year) contracts committing to use of the service. Failure to complete the term would make the customer liable for early termination fees.The bill itself is an important component of the services which acts as an ambassador of the service provider and at times as an evidence of the service itself.
24 Advantages of prepaidA prepaid plan may have a lower cost (often for low usage patterns e.g. a telephone for emergency use) and make it easier to control spending by limiting debt.They often have fewer contractual obligations – no early termination fee, freedom to change providers, plans, able to be used by those unable to take out a contract (i.e. under age of majority).Depending on the local laws, they may be available to those who do not have a permanent address, phone number, or credit card. This makes them popular amongst students away from their home towns and travellers.
25 Disadvantages of prepaid Sometimes, pay-as-you-go customers pay more for their calls and SMS messages, and in some cases they are limited in what they can do with their phone – calls to international or premium rate numbers may be blocked, and they may not be able to roam.These limitations are often due to the complexity of managing the credit system for high price calls, or when users are not on their home network.
26 Customer ChurnPrepaid accounts require that a subscriber have funds in the account to make outgoing calls.Some operators allow their pre-pay customers to have a small negative balance to allow short calls or texts when the customer's credit has been completely used. This is then deducted when the customer next adds more credit.The time most likely for a prepaid customer to switch to a different service provider is when the prepaid account reaches a "zero credit balance".Like other service providers, mobile service providers losing a mobile account call it "churn."
27 SummaryIn this session we have familiarised with the different mobile service providers in India.The features and advantages of wireless data cards have been examined and studied.The different type of SIM cards and their specification has been briefly discussed in this session.The session also differentiated the post-paid and prepaid mobile services.
28 ReviewIndia’s largest telecom operator is (Fill in the blank).Discuss some of the features of a prepaid plan.What is the difference between a data card modem and a data card router?SIM stands forThe name RUIM is associated with wireless technology.
29 AssignmentTabulate the list of service providers in India based on the Technology.Find out the Brand Names of wireless data cards provide by the mobile service providers and prepare a chart for comparison of tariff, features and benefits.Collect the different type of SIM Cards and observe the difference in terms of Memory, features and size.Collect some Prepaid Plans and post-paid plans of a service provider and illustrate the benefits of a prepaid plan Vs post-paid Plan.
30 Further readingVisit the websites of telecom service providers in India.Wireless Home Networking for Dummies (3 ed.)- Danny Briere & Pat Hurley.Visit the website of 3GPP and understand the specification for SIM Card.