Spherical Mirror A section of a sphere R = radius C= center of curvature F = Focal point f = focal length A = vertex f = ½ R
Concave Mirror Inwardly curved surface Converges incoming parallel rays of light f and R are ( + )
Real and virtual images A real image is formed when rays of light intersect at a single point. Can be projected onto a screen. A virtual image is formed by light rays that only appear to intersect.
Images formed by concave mirrors Position of objectPosition of imageCharacter of image At ∞ At FReal, zero size Between ∞ and C Between F and C Real, inverted, diminished At C Real, inverted, same size Between C and F Between C and ∞ Real, inverted, magnified At F At ∞ Between F and V From - ∞ to V Virtual, upright, magnified At V Virtual, upright, same size
Convex Mirror Outwardly curved mirrored surface Diverges incoming parallel light rays f and R are ( - )
Position of object Position of image Character of image At ∞ At FVirtual, zero size Between ∞ and V Between F and V Virtual, upright, diminished At V Virtual, upright, same size Images formed by convex mirrors
Mirror Equation f = focal length d o = object distance d i = image distance Object and image distances are positive if measured from the front side of the mirror, negative if measured from the “back” side
Magnification M = magnification h i = image height h o = object height upright images + M inverted images - M
Drawing Ray Diagrams RayIncident line drawn from object to mirror Reflected line drawn from mirror to image 1 parallel to axisthrough focal point 2 parallel to axis 3 through center of curvature back along itself
Spherical Aberration Occurs when incident rays far from the principal axis converge away from the focal point. Produces a blurred image. Can be eliminated by using a parabolic mirror.
White light is made up of all the colors of the rainbow
The primary colors of light are red, blue and green By mixing colors of light you are adding light energy in different ranges of the visible spectrum. They can add to produce all other colors Light Addition