# Chapter 4 Energy. Energy A. What is Energy? Energy is the ability to cause change. 1. Different Types of Energy a. thermal energy b. chemical energy c.

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Chapter 4 Energy

Energy A. What is Energy? Energy is the ability to cause change. 1. Different Types of Energy a. thermal energy b. chemical energy c. radiant energy d.electrical energy

Energy B. Kinetic energy (KE)- Energy in the form of motion a. The amount of kinetic energy an object has depends on its mass and its velocity b. KE= ½ mass X velocity 2 c. Joule - The SI Unit to measure energy C. Potential energy (PE)- Energy stored by motionless things, giving it the potential to cause change

Energy 3. Elastic potential energy (EPE)- Energy stored by things that stretch or compress 4. Chemical potential energy (CPE) - Energy stored in chemical bonds between atoms 5. Gravitational potential energy (GPE) - Energy stored by things that are above Earth a. The amount of GPE an object has depends on its mass, the acceleration due to gravity, and its height above the ground b. GPE = mass in kg x 9.8 m/s 2 x height in m

Discussion Questions (Write answers in your notes) 1. Name the different types of energy. 2. How is elastic potential energy different from chemical potential energy?

Answers 1. Thermal energy, chemical energy, radiant energy, electrical energy 2. Elastic potential energy is energy stored by things that stretch or compress. Chemical potential energy is energy stored in chemical bonds.

Conservation of Energy

Changing Forms of Energy A. Transforming Electrical Energy 1. What device transforms electrical energy into light and thermal energy? B. Transforming Chemical Energy 1. Spark plug firing initiates the conversion of chemical potential energy into thermal energy

Energy Conversion A. Energy conversion - energy changing from one form to another 1. Mechanical energy (ME) - the total amount of potential and kinetic energy in a system mechanical energy = kinetic energy + potential energy

Law of Conservation of Energy B. Law of Conservation of Energy - Energy may change from one form to another, but the total amount of energy never changes EXAMPLE 1. As a swing moves back and forth, it’s energy continually converts from kinetic to potential and back to kinetic 2. Friction Converts some of the mechanical energy into thermal energy 3. Where is PE the greatest? 4. Where is KE the greatest? AC B

Nuclear Reactions C. Mass is converted into energy in the process of fusion and fission 1. Nuclear fusion - Two nuclei are fused together. Takes place in the sun 2. Nuclear fission - Two nuclei are broken apart

Energy in the Human Body D. Conservation of energy in your body 1. Your body stores energy in the form of fat and other chemical compounds. 2. Chemical potential energy from food that is stored in your body is used to fuel the processes that keep you alive 3. The food calorie is used to measure how much energy you get from various foods. One calorie is equal to about 4,180 J.

Discussion Question 1. What does the Law of Conservation of Energy state?

Answer Energy cannot be created or destroyed. The total amount of energy in the universe does not change. Energy cannot be created or destroyed. The total amount of energy in the universe does not change.

Determine whether the italicized statement is true or false. If the statement is true write true. If the statement is false, write the correct term. 1. Energy in the form of motion is potential energy 2. The greater mass a moving object has, the more kinetic energy it has 3. A rock at the edge of a cliff has kinetic energy because of its position 4. Friction causes some mechanical energy to change to thermal energy 5. Energy that is stored is kinetic energy 6. Mass is measured in Joules 7. Doubling an object’s velocity will double its kinetic energy 8. Chemical potential energy is energy stored in chemical bonds

9. Thermal energy is energy stored by things that stretch or compress 10. A book and a feather are sitting next to each other on a shelf and have different potential energies 11. Two copies of the same book are in a book case. One book is twice as high as the other. They have the same potential energy 12. A toaster uses chemical energy to make toast 13. Mechanical energy is the total amount of kinetic and potential energy in a system 14. When a plant falls from a window its thermal energy is transformed into kinetic energy 15. The law of conservation of energy state that although energy can change forms it can never be created or destroyed

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