Presentation on theme: "BA 1/15 Why did Alexander reject the peace offer from Darius III? Alexander’s final battle with Darius III was which battle? (present day Iraq) Name."— Presentation transcript:
BA 1/15 Why did Alexander reject the peace offer from Darius III? Alexander’s final battle with Darius III was which battle? (present day Iraq) Name one reason that Alexander the Great decided to turn back to Macedonia?
Standard SSWH3 The student will examine the political, philosophical and cultural interaction of Classical Mediterranean societies from 700 BCE to 400 CE.
Essential Question How did conflict between patricians and plebeians change the culture of classical Rome?
Origins of Rome Legend: city of Rome founded in 753 BCE by Romulus and Remus Twins who were abandoned as infants and raised by a she-wolf Built a city where they were raised Truth: city built at a strategic location with fertile soil Built on hills at a curve on the Tiber River
Origins of Rome continued 3 groups inhabited Italian peninsula: 1. Latin: considered 1 st Romans Built wooden huts on Rome’s hills 2. Greeks: established colonies in Italy & Sicily 3. Etruscans: skilled engineers & metal workers from northern Italy Influenced Roman writing and architecture (video)video
The Early Republic Etruscan kings ruled Rome for nearly 100 years 509 BCE: brutal king driven from power Romans create a Republic Republic: form of government where power rests with citizens Citizens can vote for leaders
Early Republic continued Struggle of power in early republic 2 groups struggling for power: 1. Patricians 2. Plebeians
Patricians Patricians: wealthy landowners Held most of power Inherited power and social status Claimed ancestry gave them authority to make laws
Plebeians Plebeians: common farmers, artisans, and merchants Citizens of Rome with right to vote Made up majority of population Barred by law from important government positions Over time, able to form tribunes Tribune: elected administrative officers of the plebeians Elected to protect the interests and rights of the plebeians from patricians
Twelve Tables First written law code of Rome Idea forced by plebeians Carved on 12 tablets and hung in Forum Forum: marketplace in Rome Center of judicial and business affairs Established that all free citizens had right to protection of the law (video) (video)
Republic Government 3 major governmental branches: 1. Consuls 2. Senate 3. Dictator
Consuls Consuls: command army and direct government Only 2 consuls Consuls able to veto each other Limited to 1 year term Could not be re-elected for 10 years
Senate Senate: aristocratic branch with legislative and administrative functions 300 members Influence foreign and domestic policy
Dictator Dictator: leader with absolute power to make laws and command army Elected by republic ONLY in times of crisis
Roman Army All citizens who owned land must serve Public officers needed 10 years of military service Army organized into legions Legions: military units of 5,000 foot soldiers Organization of legions and military training help Rome rise to power
Rome Spreads Power Rome wants to expand territory through conquest and trade City of Carthage interfered with Rome’s trade through Mediterranean Carthage: city on North African coast
Punic Wars Rome vs. Carthage Fought from 264-146 BCE Fought 3 wars First Punic War Rome won control of Sicily & western Mediterranean Lasted 23 years Second Punic War Led by Carthaginian general Hannibal
Hannibal Brilliant military strategist Wants to avenge Carthage’s loss in 1 st war Plans to capture Rome in sneak attack through Alps Army: 50,000 infantry, 9,000 cavalry, 60 elephants Over 10 years, conquers many Roman cities Never able to conquer Rome Hannibal still in Italy Scipio: Roman general who decides to attack Carthage Forces Hannibal to return home to defend city Romans win
Punic Wars continued 3 rd Punic War (149-146 BCE) Rome attacks Carthage Carthage burned down 50,000 Carthaginians sold into slavery Turned into Roman province Final victory where Rome gains control of western Mediterranean (video) (video)
BA 1. Who are the patricians? 2. Who are the plebeians? 3. What was a tribune? Why was it designed? 4. What is the importance of the Twelve Tables? 5.What are the 3 Roman government branches. Define their roles.