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Unit 5 – Drugs & Drug Abuse

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1 Unit 5 – Drugs & Drug Abuse

2 Why do teens try drugs? See parents / friends use Pressure
Want to fit in See drugs glamorized Bored Escape from problems

3 Drugs Terms & Info Overdose: The consequence of taking an excessive
amount of a drug that leads to coma or death.

4 Drugs Terms & Info Continued…
When injecting substances through a needle a person is at risk of contracting: Hepatitis B HIV

5 Drugs Terms & Info Continued…
Physiological dependence: The body develops a chemical need for a drug. Psychological dependence: Person believes that the drug is needed to feel good or even function. Addiction: Both a physiological and psychological dependence.

6 Stimulants Stimulants are drugs that speed up the
Central Nervous System (CNS) Examples: Methamphetamines Nicotine Caffeine Paranoia: An irrational fear or distrust of others – often drug induced

7 Amphetamines Amphetamines are Stimulants that have an effect similar to the sympathetic nervous system. Amphetamines are prescription drugs that are sometimes sold illegally as “speed” or “uppers”. Euphoria: A feeling of intense well-being that may be followed by a “crash” or letdown. In addition, because of the widespread use of amphetamines as a treatment for narcolepsy and ADD/ADHD, prescription amphetamines are subject to diversion and are one of the most frequently-abused drugs in high schools and colleges.

8 Methamphetamine A stimulant that is related to amphetamines, but is more powerful! Meth is a highly addictive drug The drug is made from relatively inexpensive over-the-counter ingredients in illegal laboratories called “meth labs”. When used illegally the drug is called “Crystal Meth”, “Crank”, “Speed”, or “Ice” Crank can be snorted, sniffed, injected, or swallowed. One of the most unpredictable drugs!                                             

9 Cocaine Cocaine is a white powder made from coca bush.
Cocaine is a rapid, acting powerful stimulant. Users usually develop a tolerance very quickly, causing abusers to need larger & larger doses. Cocaine can be sniffed into the nose, smoked, or injected directly into the bloodstream. “Crack” is a form of cocaine that can be smoked. A process called “free-basing” changes cocaine into a concentrated smokable / “crack” form.

10 Cocaine Cont. Interferes with the way your brain processes chemicals that create feelings of pleasure, so you need more and more of the drug to feel normal


12 Cocaine Snorting cocaine can cause scabs to form on mucous membranes, damage your nasal septum and eventually make your nose collapse. Can permanently damage their nasal tissue

13 Depressants Depressants or sedatives, are drugs that slow down the CNS
Commonly abused Depressants are: Alcohol Barbiturates Tranquilizers Narcotics (Opiates)

14 Depressants do what to the body?
Relax muscles Relieve feelings of tension / worry Bring on sleep Slow down heart and breathing rates Lower blood pressure

15 Depressants Cont… Barbiturates Tranquilizers (CNS Depressants)
Belong to the “sedative-hypnotics” family of drugs. Small doses = Sedatives >> relaxes a person Large doses = Hypnotics >> inducing sleep Doctors rarely prescribe barbiturates because they are dangerous and often abused. Tranquilizers (CNS Depressants) Are depressants that may reduce muscle activity.

16 Depressants Cont…. Narcotics (Opiates) Pain relief, induce sleep
Drugs derived from the opium plant that have a sedative effect. They are now called “opiates” These drugs block the pain messages to the brain. The term opiate refers to the alkaloids found in opium, an extract from the seed pods of the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.).

17 Narcotic Examples Codeine Morphine
Is sometimes used in cough syrup, pain relief Morphine Used for pain relief Heroin is made from morphine Does Heroin have any medical use? NO

18 Heroin Heroin is classified as a Narcotic / Opiate.
It is an illegal opiate made from morphine in a laboratory. Abusers of heroin appear dazed & disoriented. Highly addictive Withdrawal can be very painful! Can be injected, smoked, or snorted Heroin depresses the CNS, slows breathing & pulse. Has NO medical uses. (a doctor will never prescribe heroin) Highly addictive, because it enters the brain so rapidly.

19 Short/Long Term Effects of Heroin


21 Heroin terms and info Mainlining: Injecting the drug directly into the vein Skin-popping: Injecting the drug right under the skin Methadone: Drug used to help with withdrawal symptoms. (also very addictive)

22 Heroin terms and info Track marks: Usually on/around vein of users
Collapsed Veins: Can not get a needle into it for drug or medical purposes Speedball: Mix of heroin and cocaine


24 Hallucinogens Drugs that alter mood, thoughts, and sense perceptions
Hallucinogens overload the brain with sensory information, causing a distorted sense of reality. Examples LSD Psilocybin (mushrooms) PCP (angel dust) Flashbacks: a similar recurrence of the effects of a hallucinogenic drug Flashbacks can happen at any time without warning – long after the drug use ends!

25 Hallucinogens Examples
PCP Phencyclidine, is also called “angel dust” PCP is considered to be one of the most dangerous drugs Very unpredictable Many users brought to ER, because overdose or its disturbing psychological effects (delusions/paranoia) Only available illegally Because the drug eliminates the sensation of pain, abusers may intentionally injure or even kill themselves.

26 Hallucinogen Examples Continued
Psilocybin (“Shrooms” or “Magic Mushrooms”) Psilocybin is a chemical found in a certain type of mushroom Eaten raw or mixed with food Similar effects as LSD – but not as strong DANGER: There is a similar looking mushroom that is deadly and often mistaken for Psilocybin. LSD Lysergic Acid Diethylamide Commonly called “acid” Comes in tablets, capsules, and sometimes liquid Can cause frightening episodes called “Bad Trips” (bad flashbacks) sometimes years later. Mescaline A psychoactive ingredient of peyote cactus

27 LSD Blotter Paper and Stickers

28 Cannabis Acts as a stimulant, depressants, and a hallucinogenic drug
Cannabis is the scientific name for “Hemp” which is used as an illegal drug in two forms: Marijuana Hashish

29 Marijuana & Hashish Marijuana is cannabis smoked, eaten, or drunk for effects. Hashish is the dark brown resin collected from the tops of the cannabis plant. Hash packaged for sale


31 Marijuana Facts THC - is the main psychoactive substance found in the cannabis plant. THC has analgesic effects even at low doses. Other effects include: relaxation; euphoria; altered space-time perception; alteration of visual, auditory, and olfactory senses; disorientation; fatigue; and appetite stimulation. The more THC – the more dangerous the marijuana.

32 Cannabis Facts and Info…
Cannabis smoke contains more cancer causing chemicals than cigarettes smoke. Males who regularly use marijuana may experience Lower levels of testosterone Lower sperm productivity Females who regularly use marijuana may experience Still births Low birth weights Similar condition to F.A.S.

33 Marijuana Did You Know? Smoking one marijuana cigarette deposits approximately four times the amount of tar into the lungs than a filtered tobacco cigarette. Marijuana is considered a "gateway" drug, because it often leads to the use of other illegal drugs such as cocaine and heroin. Being in a room with marijuana smoke can cause a "contact high" from just breathing.

34 Inhalants Substances that are breathable fumes; sniffed to get a hallucinogenic effect. “Huffing” “Sniffing” or “Chroming” Examples of Inhalants are: Glue Aerosols Lighter fluid “Whippits”, laughing gas / nitrous


36 Common Inhalants Aerosol sprays
Adhesives and cements (rubber cement, plastic cement, etc.) Air freshener Butane Canned air (compressed hydrofluorocarbons) Cassette player head cleaner Xylene markers Diethyl ether Correction fluid Gasoline Insecticide Nail polish remover (acetone or similar chemicals) Paint or spray paint Paint thinner (turpentine similar chemicals) Toluene Freon

37 Prescription Drugs Prescription drug abuse means taking a prescription drug that is not prescribed for you, or taking it for reasons or in dosages other than as prescribed. Commonly abused: Opiates (for pain) Vicodin OxyContin Depressants (for anxiety and sleep disorders) Valium Xanax Stimulants (for ADHD and narcolepsy) Dexedrine Ritalin Adderall

38 Club Drugs (Designer Drugs)
Synthetic substances meant to imitate the effects of narcotics and hallucinogens Usually made stronger Examples MDMA (X, XTC, love drug) Ketamine (K, Special K) GHB (Liquid G, Liquid X,) Rohypnol (Roofies)



41 Look Alike Drugs May resemble illegal drugs (club drugs).
Many times the user has no idea what they are using – making them very dangerous! Studies have proven it produces long-last and permanent damage to the brain’s ability to think and store memories.

42 Ecstasy (MDMA) Danger: Because it is a designer club drug. You can never be sure of what you are getting! Physical Symptoms: Flooding of serotonin to brain Heart attack Overheating Organ failure Blurred vision


44 Ecstasy (MDMA) Magnifies senses – Touch, Smell, Sight
Symptoms: Gives you the feeling of peacefulness and energy Magnifies senses – Touch, Smell, Sight Eases social defenses What to look for: Pacifiers, light sticks, vicks vapor rub, straws, suckers, water


46 Dangerous Club Drugs GHB Roofies Ketamine (Special K) WARNING
All three are known to be used as Date-Rape Drugs Ketamine (Special K)

47 Club Drugs Refers to a wide variety of drugs often used at all-night dance parties (raves), concerts, nightclubs Often produced in labs, it is impossible to know exactly what chemicals were used to produce them

48 Dangerous Club Drugs Rohypnol (Roofies) 10x more powerful than valium
Dangers – headaches, muscle pain, anxiety, restlessness, confusion, memory loss Blackouts occur for 8-12 hours (even small doses)

49 Dangerous Club Drugs GHB (Liquid G, Georgia Home Boy) (Date rape)
Colorless, odorless, thicker than karo syrup, tends to have a salty taste. Drowsiness, unconsciousness or breathing problems Larger doses – coma, seizures, confusion, unconsciousness

50 Dangerous Club Drugs Ketamine – “Special K”
First seen in It is used in veterinarian medicine. Gives a feeling of the mind being separated from the body, similar to LSD and PCP. Impaired motor function, memory loss, numbness, nausea.

51 Synthetic Drugs Labeled as “plant food” and “herbal incense”
Labeled “not for human consumption” to disguise their intended purpose. Abused for hallucinogenic and mood-altering effects. Marketed “natural” and “safe” substances However, thousands of users have experienced overdosing and visits to hospital emergency rooms Illegal to sell or posses K2 and bath salts Both potential for acute psychosis, violent behavior, seizures and cardiovascular emergencies

52 Bath Salts Exactly which chemicals are put into the drugs isn’t known.
“Fake cocaine” Sniffing/snorting, orally, smoked, injected Users experience: Severe Paranoia Violence and self mutilation Hallucinations Chest pain Increased pulse Intense cravings for more Suicidal/homicidal thinking/behavior (may last even after effects have worn off)

53 Synthetic Marijuana Names for it: K2, Spice, Fake Weed, Skunk Not FDA approved for human consumption Users do not know exactly what chemicals they are putting into their body Its effects can be up to 10 times more intense than marijuana What is it? A mix of dried herbs and spices that have been sprayed with a synthetic cannaboid, a chemical that is similar to THC (responsible for mind altering effects). Spice or K2 is second most commonly abused drugs amongst seniors

54 Legal or Illegal? If charged with possessing:
A prison term 1-3 years Fines up to $25,000 Mandatory drug testing Counseling Probation The DEA designated the five active chemicals in Spice as Schedule I controlled substances. Making it illegal to sell, buy, or possess In 2011 Poison control center received over 12,000 calls related to exposure to bath salts and K2 use.


56 How does “Spice” Affect the Brain
Experiences similar to those produced by marijuana elevated mood, relaxation, and altered perception ** in some cases the effects are even stronger than those of marijuana Others reported psychotic effects like extreme anxiety, paranoia, and hallucinations Appearing dizzy and having trouble walking ** Because the chemical composition of many products sold as Spice is unknown, it is likely that some varieties also contain substances that could cause dramatically different effects than the user might expect. A man reported as though their heart was pounding so intensely it would explode Other report a sensation that can only be described as a temporary paralysis of motor movement. For example, that he was so high that he could not tell if he was breathing anymore, but was clearly conscious.

57 Other Health effects Spice abusers who have been taken to Poison Control Centers report symptoms that include rapid heart rate, vomiting, agitation, confusion, and hallucinations Also: raise blood pressure reduced blood supply to the heart heart attacks

58 Calls Received by Poison Control Centers Relating to Synthetic Marijuana
"Kids taking this drug are playing Russian Roulette with their brains and bodies." Lisa Madigan, Illinois Attorney General

59 Things to remember: THE END!!
Never let anyone buy you a drink unless you get it with them! Never let anyone prepare a drink for you unless you are there to watch them! Never leave your drink unattended/Bring it with you! You never know who could be watching! THE END!!

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