4 Artificial Intelligence Artificial intelligence is a reasoning process performed by computers, which allows the computer to:draw deductionsproduce new informationmodify rules or write new rulesThe computer, just like a human, is able to learn as it stores more and more data.
5 Expert SystemAn expert system is a computer system which emulates the decision-making ability of a human expert.They can also give advice on solutions or advice on (medical) matters.
7 3 Parts to Expert System Knowledge Base A database of all of the facts and knowledge on a subjectInference EngineA set of rules to base the decisions on (IF-Then)Brings the parts of the database together to answer the questions being askedUser InterfaceHow the questions and answers are presented to the user
8 Advantages of an Expert System The expert system is always available 24 hours a dayWill never 'retire'.-- No loss of expertiseCan provide a second opinionIt can help train young doctors in unfamiliar diseasesCheaper to update than to train doctorsTraining using simulatorsUsing NHS Direct allows self- diagnosis
9 Disadvantages of Expert Systems Over reliance on IT system / Loss of doctor expertiseCost to buy and set up the systemSome people do not like to talk to a computerPeople can convince themselves that they are worse than they from misusing the online versionLacks the 'human touch' – lack of personal contact
11 Types of ScanningMRI: provide a tremendous level of detail on tissue information, i.e. very good for detecting brain tumours.CAT: produces a complete 3D model of a patient’s bones and internal organs.PET: produces three-dimensional image or picture of functional processes in the body
12 Advantages Allows (accurate) diagnosis without the need for surgery. Leads to faster recovery.Removes the danger of post operative infections.Surgeon better prepared as knows what he is going to find before cutting open the body.
13 Disadvantages Expensive to purchase or expensive to run/maintain Can be claustrophobic.Could result in the loss of traditional diagnostic skills.Have to keep still for long periods in MRI.Health risks – increased risk of cancer –exposure to radiation.Patients with pacemakers and metallic limbs cannot go through scanners.Need for expert training / interpretation. Postcode lottery.
14 Sensors Advantages Disadvantages Allows 24/7 monitoring. Frees up staff.Accurate readings.Spotting trends in patient symptoms.Allows remote monitoring.Calibration needed to check accuracy.
16 What is blood bar coding? Blood bar coding allows the tracking of blood from its donation to its useBracelet with a barcode worn by patient is matched with bar code on the blood bag / donor
17 How does blood bar coding work? Blood is taken and typed.Stored and barcoded.Then sent when required to a hosipital to be kept in a blood bank.Hospital staff have to scan their ID to access the blood bank, then scan out the blood bag.Patient is then scanned using a bar code on their wrist, if it matches than the transfusion is given.
18 AdvantagesCan track a patient / donor if given bad blood (CJD, hepatitis, cross contamination).Better stock control of the blood.Makes sure patient gets the right type.
19 DisadvantagesDamaged bar codes can cause delays.
21 Past Paper Questions Define what is meant by an expert system.  State the three main components of an expert system and describe the advantages and disadvantages of using an expert system for patient care. Describe, using examples, how blood tracking and body scanning are used in patient care. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages each of these methodologies has brought to patient care.