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Scientific writing A.H. Mehrparvar Occupational Medicine Department.

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Presentation on theme: "Scientific writing A.H. Mehrparvar Occupational Medicine Department."— Presentation transcript:

1 Scientific writing A.H. Mehrparvar Occupational Medicine Department

2 Types of information  Raw data  Descriptive statistics  Analytical statistics

3 Structure of the results The Results include:  Principal results (answer to the study question)  secondary results  Supporting information  Any results that contradict the hypothesis

4 Beginning of results  Two methods: give a general panorama of the study Directly starting the results  Negative results

5 Results  Report data  Do not interpret data  Text  Tables  Figures  Images

6 Using text  We don’t have extensive or complicated data  When putting data into a table creates a table with 2 or fewer columns  Data is secondary or irrelevant to the main study findings

7 Text  Simple present tense: Locate the data  Simple past tense: To report data  Active or passive

8 Using table  To show many and precise numerical values and other specific data in a small space  To compare and contrast data values or characteristics among related items

9 Using a figure  To show trends, patterns, and relationships when general pattern is more important than the exact data values  To summarize research results  To present a visual explanation of a sequence of events, procedures

10 Tables and Figures  Should be self-explanatory  Refer in the text  Not repeat data in the text  Be consistent  Clear, informative titles  Journal guidelines

11 Guidelines for Tables  Combine repetitive tables  Large tables  Empty cells  Not to crowded  Highlight a relevant result  Abbreviations and symbols  Units

12 Guidelines for figures  Image clarity  Appropriate legends  Label important parts  Units

13 Referring to tables/figures in the text The figure/table shows… put the figure or table reference at the end of the sentence Do not repeat the information that should already be contained in the table Just point out the key result or trend

14 Frequent Mistakes Failure to provide the data that is critical to answering the research question Adding interpretation to the findings Inadequate statistical evidences Over presentation of unnecessary details Present accidental findings Repeating the data from tables and figures in the text Repeating the statistical methods in the result section

15 Discussion

16 Structure of discussion The relation between the question of the study and results Comparison with other studies/consistency/agreement personal interpretation of findings other possible interpretations limitations of the study Confounding factors or other factors influencing the results

17 Discussion  Statement of principal findings  Strengths and weaknesses of the study  Strengths and weaknesses in relation to other studies: important differences in results  Meaning of the study: possible explanations and implications for clinicians and policymakers  Unanswered questions and future research

18 Beginning of discussion Objectives of the study Refer back to the questions (hypotheses, predictions etc.) that you posed in your Introduction Refer back papers you cited in your Review of the Literature Briefly restate the most important points from your Results

19 Comparisons A general statement regarding the findings Mention another author’s work that relates directly to the findings Make a link between her/his work and your work Clearly state how your work differs from her/his work State the conclusions that can be drawn from your results in light of these considerations

20 Frequent mistakes Over presentation of the results Exaggeration of the importance of the findings Conclusions that are not supported by the data Refering to all published papers in the field

21 Conclusion  Not just a summary  Don’t merely repeat what you said in the Abstract and Introduction  A very brief revisit of the most important findings  A final judgment on the importance and significance those findings  Suggestions for improvements

22 Frequent mistakes Repeat introduction Present new data Repeat data presentation General statements Broad claims and strong statements

23 Other parts  Conflict of Interest  Acknowledgement  Authors’ Contribution

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