2 Weathering The breakdown of Earth’s crust into smaller pieces. The chemical and physical processes that break down rock at Earth’s surface.
3 Mechanical (Physical) Weathering The type of weathering in which rock is physically broken into smaller pieces.Types of Mechanical weatheringIce (Frost) wedgingPlant root growthRelease of PressureAbrasionBurrowing of animalsTemperature changes
4 Ice (Frost) WedgingThe process that splits rock when water seeps into cracks, then freezes and expands.
5 Plant Root GrowthTrees, bushes, and other plants may take root in cracks in rocks.The roots grow and wedge open the cracks – splitting rocks
6 Release of PressureAs erosion removes material from the surface of a mass of rock, pressure on the rock is reduced.This release of pressure causes the outside of the rock to crack and flake off like the layers of an onion.
7 AbrasionThe grinding away of rock particles carried in water, ice, or wind.
8 Burrowing of AnimalsBurrowing animals, like moles and rabbits dig holes that expose new rocks to the effects of weathering. The holes allow water and other weathering agents to reach the rock layer that had been covered by the soil.
9 Temperature Changes repeated daily heating and cooling of rock; heat causes expansion; cooling causes contraction.different minerals expand and contract at different rates causing stresses along mineral boundariesexample: Stone Mountain, Georgia
10 Chemical WeatheringThe process that breaks down rock through chemical changes.The agents of chemical weatheringWaterOxygenLiving organismsAcid RainCarbon Dioxide
12 OxygenA chemical change in which a substance combines with oxygen, as when iron oxidizes, forming rust.Rock that contains iron also oxidizes, or rusts.
13 Living OrganismsLichens that grow on rocks produce weak acids that chemically weather rock.
14 Acid RainCompounds from burning coal, oil and gas react chemically with water forming acids.Acid rain causes very rapid chemical weathering.
15 Carbon Dioxide CO2 dissolves in rain water and creates carbonic acid. Carbonic acid easily weathers limestone and marble.
16 Karst Topography Karst is created by chemical weathering of limestone. A type of landscape in rainy regions where there is limestone near the surface, characterized by caves, sinkholes, and disappearing streams.
24 What is Gravity?A force that moves rocks and other materials downhill;The force that pulls objects towards each other.Gravity is the underlying force behind all erosion; it may act alone or with a transporting agent:a.causes water to flow downhill.causes glaciers to flow down a valley or spread outward.causes winds by pulling heavier (more dense) cold air beneath (less dense) warm air.
30 pitted desert wind erosion sediments that have been transported by wind are appear pitted (random holes) and frosted (glazed look) and are deposited in sorted piles.Only very small particles can be transported by wind.Wind Erosiondesert wind erosionpitted
32 There are 5 ways that man can cause erosion: Forestry – all vegetation of removed, and without roots, the soil will erode away.Strip Mining – removing rock cover to get to the resources below, which causes the loose sediments to erode away.Construction – the clearing of land to build buildings/houses also causes all loose soil to erode away.Improper Farming – not plowing the land at right angles to slopes causes soil to erode away.Salting Highways – the salt is washed off the road to the sides, where it prevents vegetative growth along the sides.
33 Deposition – Process in which sediment is laid down in new locations. Most deposition happens in standing/still bodies of water (oceans/lakes).Deposition is caused by the slowing down of the agent of erosion.Sediment - Small, solid pieces of material that come from rocks or organisms; earth materials deposited by erosion.There are 3 factors that influence the rate of sediment deposition:Sediment size –Sediment shape –Sediment density -
34 Graded Bedding/Vertical Sorting a situation where larger particles settle on the bottom and smaller particles settle towards the top.This happens naturally when a fast moving river/stream meets a large standing body of water.This happens because the velocity of the water decreases very quickly. (A waterfall emptying into a lake)
35 Horizontal Sortinga situation where moving water enters a larger, still body of water slowly, and causes the larger particles to be deposited closer to the shoreline.Particle size decreases as you move away from the shore.
36 Deltaa fan shaped deposit that forms at the mouth of a river/stream when it enters a larger body of water.This is seen under the water.The particles are horizontally sorted.
37 Alluvial Fana fan shaped deposit of sediments that forms when a stream/river flows out of a mountain on to flat, dry plains.These are not under water and are very visible.This only happens on the land. You can call it a “land delta”.
38 Cross-Beddinga situation where layers of sediments are deposited at angles to one another as a result of a change of direction of the erosional agent.These are usually found in sand dunes, deltas, and alluvial fans.
39 What have you learned? What is erosion? 2. How are weathering and erosion connected?Give 2 examples of weathering.3.4.Give 2 examples of erosion.5.6.