2 Lecture Focus Question How did Kennedy respond to the continuing challenges of the Cold War?
3 Election of 1960 John F. Kennedy Democratic nominee Supported fight against communismEnergetic & passionateAttended HarvardCame from a wealthy family in Boston, MARichard NixonRepublican nomineeSupported fight against communismEnergetic & passionateVP for EisenhowerCame from a working family in Yorba Linda, CA
4 Televised Debate Nixon Underweight Clothes too big Pale & tired “Easy Shave” melting in heat of lightsSpoke to JFKJFKRested & tannedNewly tailored suitSpoke to cameras → audience of voters!
7 JFK’s New Cold War Strategies JFK = 1st pres born in 20th century“Ask not what your country can do for you – ask what you can do for your country”Flexible response: defense policy that prepared the U.S. to fight in any size/type of conflictPeace Corps: sent U.S. volunteers around the world to provide technical, education, health services to developing countriesAlliance for Progress: promoted economic assistance to Latin America
8 Communism in Cuba 1959: Fidel Castro comes to power in Cuba Strong ties to U.S.S.R.1961: Bay of Pigs InvasionU.S. plan to overthrow CastroTotal disasterU.S. accepts defeat and loses respect from other countries
9 The Berlin Crisis 1961: JFK and Krushchev meet → peace treaty? Berlin becomes center of discussionMeeting = disasterJFK takes actionDoubled number of men drafted into armyIncreased spending for defenseAmerican people prepared: fallout shelters1961: Soviets build the Berlin Wall to divide E & W Berlin
11 Cuban Missile Crisis U.S. intelligence discovery: 4 possible responses Soviets building missile bases in Cuba!Cuba = 90 miles from Key West, FL4 possible responsesNegotiate with the SovietsInvade CubaBlockade CubaBomb the missile sites
14 The Ultimate Decision JFK decides on a naval “quarantine” “Blockade” would be an act of warHe told Americans:“The path we have chosen for the present is full of hazards… The cost of freedom is always high -- and Americans have always paid it. And one path we shall never choose, and that is the path of surrender.”