2 Focus question: How did the flow of immigration after 1815 reinforce the British character of Canada?The Great Migration:Britain was eager to open up available land to farming. They hoped to attract people from England, Scotland, Wales, and Ireland.Between 1825 – 1850 more than immigrants came to the ports of Halifax, Saint John and Quebec City. This influx is called the Great Migration.
3 Why did so many people want to leave Britain to live in the colonies? In Britain, the population was growing rapidly, but jobs were scarce.Farmers were being forced off the land.Poverty and hunger were common in Ireland suffered a terrible famine, forcing many rural people to leave.With peace, ocean travel was now safer.The colonies offered free land, new opportunities, and a chance for a better life.
4 Coming to the coloniesImmigrants travelled from Britain to Canada by ship.It was a long trip and people with money, had comfortable cabins. People who were poor, had to deal with crowded, filthy, dark holds below deck. Disease ran rampant in these conditions.So many people died on these trips, the boats were nicknamed “coffin ships”.Most newcomers travelled by land to Upper Canada, many stayed along the St. Lawrence in Quebec City and Montreal. The rest stayed in the Maritimes.
5 The Terrible YearIn 1847, the immigration population from Ireland leapt from toThe reason was a potato famine and the Irish had nothing to eat.Typhus broke out on the ships and thousands of people died on the ships and thousands more died in Canada waiting at the quarantine stations on the St. Lawrence River.The newcomers were forced to stay there until doctors were sure they were not bringing diseases into the country. In 1847 alone, 5424 people were buried on Grosse – Ile.
6 Pioneer LifeOnce people left the ship they made their way across the land by boats and wagons.Once they reached their plot of land, each family faced their own challenges: clearing the dense forest but the rugged environment and harsh climate made it difficult.
8 A Very British ColonyThe arrival of so many people from Britain changed the identity of the British colonies.The newcomers opened up vast areas of farmland and developed new industries in the area such as logging, and mining.Towns sprang up to meet the needs of the people.People worked as labourers and servants, doctors and teachers, loggers and miners.The new British immigrants brought British customs, traditions and games. They also spoke English.
10 The Underground Railroad Slavery had been present in New France for many years. Some Loyalists brought enslaved African Americans with them.In 1792, the governor of Upper Canada passed a bill to phase out slavery.In 1835, Britain banned slavery in all its colonies. The British colonies soon became known as a safe haven for people and word quickly passed amongst slaves that Canada was the “land of promises”.
12 The Underground Railroad Many runaway enslaved people fled north via the Underground Railroad.This secret network hid the fugitives by day. “Conductors: or guides, then moved them under the cover of darkness to the next ‘station’ on the ‘railroad’.This was dangerous work. People who helped enslaved people risked going to jail, steep fines or death.The Underground Railroad helped more than former enslaved people.