2 Chapter 20, Section 2 Marine Ecosystems This ecosystem is based on salt water.This abiotic (non-living) factor has a strong influence on the ecosystems of oceans and seas.
3 Chapter 20, Section 2 Marine Ecosystems Life in a particular area depends on how much light the area receives, how far the area is from the land, and how far the area is beneath the surface. Scientists have named these areas:1. The intertidal Zone. This is where the ocean meets the land. Beaches and rocky shores are located here.
4 Chapter 20, Section 2 Marine Ecosystems 2. The Neritic Zone. Moving toward the sea, the water here becomes gradually deeper as you move toward the continental shelf. Water is less than 200m deep, and receives plenty of sunlight. This is where coral reefs are located.3. The Oceanic Zone. This is the deep water of the open ocean.
5 Chapter 20, Section 2 Marine Ecosystems 4. The Benthic Zone. This is the deep sea floor. Organisms that live here obtain food that filters from above. Thermal vents are located here. These are cracks in the earths crust which allow heat to escape.
6 Chapter 20, Section 2 Marine Ecosystems PhytoplanktonWater absorbs light, so sunlight can penetrate only about 200m below the ocean’s surface, even in the clearest water.Producers require light, so, since light can only penetrate to 200m, phytoplankton, which are producers live in this area of the ocean.
7 Chapter 20, Section 2 Marine Ecosystems ZooplanktonThese are the consumers that feed on phytoplankton. Zooplankton are small animals that, along with phytoplankton, form the base of the oceans’ feeding system.
8 Chapter 20, Section 2 Marine Ecosystems Let’s take a closer look. Keep in the mind the following:Marine environments provide most of earths water through evaporation and precipitation.Ocean temperatures and currents have a major affect on world climate and wind patterns.Humans harvest vast amounts of food from the oceans.Humans dump enormous amounts of wastes in the ocean.
9 Chapter 20, Section 2 Marine Ecosystems We will examine 5 different marine biomes1. Coral Reefs.Location: Sunny Tropical WatersFoundation for the reef is the coral skeletons that have built up over thousands of years.They contain many marine species including brightly colored fish, sponges and sea urchins and sea urchins.
10 Chapter 20, Section 2 Marine Ecosystems 2. The Sargasso SeaLocation: The middle of the Atlantic Ocean.Sargassum is a type of algae found attached to rocks on the shores of North America.It forms huge floating rafts in the Sargasso Sea.Animals have adapted to living in this environment.Most animals are the same color as the sargassum.
11 Chapter 20, Section 2 Marine Ecosystems 3. Polar IceLocation: The Arctic Ocean and the open waters surrounding Antarctica.This biome includes ice!The icy waters are rich in nutrients from the surrounding landmasses.These nutrients feed the plankton, which in turn feed the fish, birds and mammals.
12 Chapter 20, Section 2 Marine Ecosystems 4. EstuariesLocation: Wherever fresh water from streams and rivers spills into the ocean.These are tide influenced and rich in nutrients and therefore rich in plankton and other larger animals.
13 Chapter 20, Section 2 Marine Ecosystems 5. Intertidal AreasLocation: On the shorelineThey include mudflats, sandy beaches, and rocky shores.This area is home to worms, crabs, clams, plankton, and even sea stars.