2 Disclaimer This training material presents very important information. Your organization must do an evaluation of all exposures, applicable codes and regulations, and establish proper controls, training, and protective measures to effectively control exposures and assure compliance.This program is neither a determination that the conditions and practices of your organization are safe nor a warranty that reliance upon this program will prevent accidents and losses or satisfy local, state or federal regulations.All procedures and training, whether required by law or not, should be implemented and reviewed by safety and risk management professionals, and legal counsel to ensure that all local, state and federal requirements are satisfied.
3 Course Outline – Personal Protective Equipment Why Take Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Training?Protecting WorkersHead ProtectionEye ProtectionHearing ProtectionRespiratory ProtectionFoot ProtectionHand ProtectionBody ProtectionSummary
4 Why Take Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Training? Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) has been instrumental in saving millions of worker’s lives in the U.S.Hazards exist in every industry and workplace.All workers that come in contact with hazardous situations or materials must be aware of, properly out-fitted and wear PPE to minimize their exposure to occupational hazards.Of course the priority should be to eliminate and control the hazard at the source, but when this can’t fully be done, PPE is one of the most important lines of defense.PPE awareness training is just one of the elements in a complete safety program that uses a variety of strategies to maintain a safe and healthy occupational environment.The types of PPE used to protect employees are based on the hazards that employees are exposed to.
5 Protecting Workers Identifying hazards: Workers must be protected from hazards that can cause injury, such as falling objects, harmful substances, and loud noise. Identifying hazards begins with a survey of the work environment:Watch how workers perform their tasks.Look for sources of potential injury:Objects that might fall from above.Repetitive motions.Exposure to chemicals.Sources of heat, intense light, noise, or dust.Tools or materials that could produce flying particles.
6 Use of PPE is the last choice of control. Protecting WorkersOperational controls to protect workers:Engineering controls (such as ventilation)Administrative controls (work practices)Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)Engineering and administrative controls are the best approaches to controlling exposure.Use of PPE is the last choice of control.
7 Engineering controls: Protecting WorkersEngineering controls:The best solution is to design or redesign a workstation in a way that eliminates hazards. This is not always possible, but even a reduction in exposure is worth the effort.If… the work environment can be physically changed toprevent workers from being exposed to a particular hazard…Then… the hazard is said to be eliminated by the use ofengineering controls.If the hazard cannot be reduced or eliminated using engineering controls, appropriate PPE must be selected and used to protect employees from the hazards.
8 Engineering controls include: Protecting WorkersEngineering controls include:Providing initial workstation design specifications that reduce or eliminate hazards.Replace a hazardous material with a non-hazardous material.Enclosing a work process.Isolating a work process.Installation of ventilation.Enclosures can also be used to control flying objects and particles as well as chemical splashes and vapors.An example of an engineering control is to place an enclosure around a noisy machine.
9 Administrative controls: Protecting WorkersAdministrative controls:Work practice controls are used to reduce the impact of risk factors that cannot be completely eliminated with engineering controls.They include:Employee rotationAlternative tasksRedesign of work methodsJob task enlargementVarying body motionsRest breaksAdjustment of work paceConditioning and stretching periodsStandard operating procedures (SOP)
10 Administrative controls (continued): Protecting WorkersAdministrative controls (continued):If… workers can change the way they do their jobs and the exposure to the hazard is removed…Then… the hazard is said to be eliminated by the use of administrative controls.If engineering and administrative controls are unable to completely eliminate workplace hazards, then the proper PPE must be supplied and worn by the worker.
11 Personal protective equipment: Protecting WorkersPersonal protective equipment:Organization requirements:Perform a “hazard assessment” of the workplace to determine the hazards.Provide the correct PPE to reduce exposure to the specific hazards.Determine when to use PPE.Provide PPE training.Preventive maintenance and inspection of the PPE.Worker requirements:Use the PPE in accordance with their training.Inspect PPE daily and maintain it in clean and reliable condition.
12 Frequent hazard protection violations: Protecting WorkersFrequent hazard protection violations:As shown in this graph depicting recent OSHA violations, failure to wear head, eye, and face protection is frequently cited.More than 50% of those citations are for failure to wear head protection and approximately 25% are for not wearing eye and face protection.Number of Serious ViolationsHead protectionEye and face protectionPPE - provided, used, and maintainedLife jackets and vestsLifesaving boat for employees working over water12
13 Protecting Workers Examples of PPE: PPE must be selected based on the body part that could be injured and by the hazards that are present.Body Part PPEEyes Safety glasses, gogglesFace Face shieldHead Hard hatFeet Safety shoesHands GlovesTorso Vest, coverallsLungs Dust mask, respiratorEars/hearing Earplugs, earmuffsPPE selection should be a head-to-toe process, thinking through each body part and how exposures to hazards can affect each one. Then PPE should be considered for each area of the body exposed to these hazards.
14 Protecting Workers PPE Written Program: If PPE is to be used to reduce exposure then a formal PPE program must be developed. This program includes procedures for selecting, providing, and using PPE.The first step in establishing the program is to assess each workstation to determine what hazards are likely to be present.Next, PPE that protects against the specific hazards must be selected.After selecting the appropriate PPE, it is important to properly train the workers who are required to use it.The PPE assessment must be certified, i.e., signed by the individual who performed the assessment.
15 Required awareness for workers: Protecting WorkersRequired awareness for workers:Workers who are required to use PPE need to be able to answer these questions:Why is PPE necessary?How will the PPE that is provided protect me?What are its limitations?When and how is the PPE to be worn?How do I identify the signs of defective PPE?How do I clean and disinfect PPE?What is the useful life of PPE and how is it to be disposed of?It is extremely important to communicate these concepts to employees. Often, employees do not fully understand how to properly use PPE or the limitations of the PPE in use.
16 Head Protection Common head injuries: The most common ways workers receive head injuries are:Being struck by falling objects, including tools.Bumping their heads against objects, such as pipes or beams.Coming into contact with exposed electrical components or wiring.
17 Selecting the right hard hat: Head ProtectionSelecting the right hard hat:Not just any hard hat will do. A hard hat must be selected for the types of hazards present and for the work being done.Class G: Used for general service work (building construction, shipbuilding, logging). Class G provides good impact protection, but limited protection against electrical hazards.Class E: Used for electrical/utility work. Class E protects against falling objects and can reduce injuries from high-voltage shock and burns.Class C: Used for comfort. Offers limited protection. Class C protects against bumps from fixed objects, but does not protect against falling objects or electrical shock.
18 Head Protection Care of hard hats: Remove hard hats from service: When the suspension system shows signs of deterioration or no longer holds the shell away from the head.Brim and shell:Make sure the brim and shell are not cracked, perforated, deformed, or showing signs of exposure to heat, chemicals, or ultraviolet light.Use of paints and stickers:Limit use of paints and stickers which can hide signs of deterioration in the shell. Paints, paint thinners, and some cleaning agents can weaken the shell and may reduce electrical resistance.Stickers may be allowed on hard hats as long as they do not hide cracks or signs of deterioration. Caution should be used in the placement and quantity of stickers used.
19 Eye protection must be worn: When the hazards listed below are present, eye protection must be worn by workers in the area.Dust and other flying particles such as metal shavings or sawdust.Corrosive gases, vapors, and liquids that may splash.Molten metal that may splash.Potentially infectious materials such as blood or hazardous liquids.Intense light from welding and lasers.Often, airborne eye hazards cannot be seen (fine particles, gases and vapors). Some materials can cause serious eye damage with little exposure.
20 Selecting the right eye protection: Not just any eye protection will do.Select protection to guard against the kinds of hazards present and for the work being performed.It should also:Be comfortable to wearFit wellNot restrict vision or movementBe durable and easy to clean and disinfectNot interfere with the function of other required PPEThere should also be various styles and sizes from which employees can choose.
21 Eye protection with corrective lenses: Ordinary correction glasses do not provide the required protection for workplace hazards.Workers who normally wear correction glasses can often obtain the needed level of protection by wearing:Correction glasses designed as safety glasses with side shields and protection-strength lenses.Goggles that fit comfortably over correction glasses without disturbing the glasses.Goggles that incorporate correction lenses behind protective lenses.Some prescriptions safety glasses must be specially ordered/manufactured. Most prescription safety glasses should accommodate either permanent or removable side shields, which should be worn when required.
22 Eye Protection Using safety glasses: While selecting eye protection, remember these things:They must be constructed with safety frames made from metal or plastic.Must meet required design specifications, such as the current ANSI Standard.Must require side shields when used in most operations.They should be used to protect against low-to-moderate impact from particles produced by tasks such as grinding and woodworking.
23 Eye Protection Goggles: Safety goggles form a barrier around the eyes protecting them from impact, dust, and splashes.Some goggles fit over correction lenses while others include built-in correction lenses.
24 Eye Protection Laser safety goggles: Laser safety goggles, a special kind of eye protection, protect the eyes from the intense concentrations of light produced by lasers.There are different power levels of lasers and the correct protection must be specified based on a Hazard Assessment!Your laser safety officer should be able to provide information on the proper eye protection for the types of lasers in use.
25 Eye Protection Face shields: Face shields provide full face protection.They can protect the face from dust and splashes or sprays of hazardous liquids.They do not protect against impact hazards.It is best to wear a face shield in combination with safety glasses.
26 Welding shields and helmets: Eye ProtectionWelding shields and helmets:Welding shields can protect the eyes against burns from radiant light.Welding helmets protect the face and eyes from flying sparks, metal splatters, and slag chips produced during welding, brazing, soldering, and cutting.Hot work involving torch cutting, brazing and welding produce different light sources and the correct protection must be specified based on a Hazard Assessment!
27 Noise is unwanted sound: Hearing ProtectionNoise is unwanted sound:Sound is measured in units called decibels (dBA). When workers are exposed to noise in excess of 85 dBA, it is considered unsafe and action must be taken to reduce the noise exposure.The louder the noise is, the shorter the exposure-time can be before action must be taken.Determining worker exposure to excessive noise considers several factors:How loud is the noise?How long is the exposure to the noise?Do workers move between work areas with different noise levels?Is noise generated from one source or multiple sources?
28 Before resorting to hearing protection: Feasible engineering and administrative controls, such as the following, must be implemented.Doing the work differently.Using quieter equipment.Putting physical barriers around noisy work processes.Placing work booths to prevent continuous noise exposures.If engineering and administrative controls do not reduce the noise exposure to acceptable levels, then hearing protection PPE, such as earmuffs, earplugs, and canal caps, must be worn. Sometimes a combination of these are required for loud noises!
29 Hearing Protection Decibel chart: This chart shows the noise levels of certain types of work.Many construction jobs require hearing protection.
30 When hearing protection is needed: It is highly advised that hearing protection be worn in any work situation where the noise exposure is over 80 dBA.In situations where the 8-hour Time Weighted Average (TWA) noise exposure exceeds 85 dBA:A noise conservation program, including noise monitoring, must be implemented.Workers need to be offered and encouraged to use hearing protection devices.Workers are required to be included in a medical surveillance program to establish current hearing levels and to monitor any possible hearing level changes.Hearing loss can occur in most people who are regularly exposed to average noise levels above 85 dBA.
31 Hearing Protection Requirements: Workers are required to wear hearing protection when:The 8-hour average exposure exceeds 90 dBAWhen a worker has experienced a measurable hearing loss and his/her worksite exposure is over 85 dBA.
32 Selecting the right hearing protection: When hearing protection is recommended or required a variety of styles need to be offered. Training must also be provided on the proper use of hearing protection.Typically the choices include:EarmuffsEarplugsCanal caps
33 Respiratory Protection Respiratory protection is an important element of many job sites:There are so many aspects to respiratory protection that there are governmental regulations and training programs, similar to this one, that focus only on respiratory protection.The information presented here touches on the main points of respiratory protection.Please review the respiratory protection training program and follow all respirator manufacturer’s instructions.
34 Respiratory Protection Respiratory Protection Program:Thorough jobsite hazard assessments must be done to determine the respiratory hazards present (such as dusts, mists, gasses, and vapors), the amounts of the contaminants, and the appropriate respiratory protection.Does anyone need a respirator in the work place?Are workers trained on how to use, care for, and maintain respirators?Have workers been approved to wear respirators by a medical professional?Which type of respirator is right for the jobs being performed?These are just a few of the many questions and issues that need to be addressed when determining the need for and the establishment of a Respiratory Protection Program.
35 Respiratory Protection Respiratory Protection Program (continued):If respirator use is required or if anyone at the jobsite is using a respirator, specific written programs must be in place.They must be administered by qualified persons.The respiratory protection program is a written document that describes all aspects of respirator use.
36 Respiratory Protection Respiratory Protection Program (continued):Programs should include:Hazard assessments (ventilation measurements, air exposure monitoring, etc.)Respirator selection (air purifying or air supplying)Employee training and standard inspection/maintenance proceduresMedical evaluations from licensed health care providersFit testing (using quantitative or qualitative measures)Program evaluationRecord keeping
37 Respiratory Protection Potential hazards:Respirators can be used to clean the air of contaminants from the breathing zone or to supply clean air from outside the work area.Different respirators prevent exposures to different types and concentrations of air contaminants.
38 Respiratory Protection Potential hazards (continued):Potential hazards can include:Gases and vapors (xylene, isopropyl alcohol)Mists and fogs (aerosol paints)Fumes (welding, brazing, lead, hexavalent chromium)Particulates (asbestos, silica, hexavalent chromium)Oxygen deficiency
39 Respiratory Protection Selecting the right respirator:Respirator selection must be based on an evaluation of the kind of exposure present. The general options are air purifying respirators or air supplying respirators.Air purifying respirators:Dust mask: Simple one or two straps mask (does not require a medical evaluation if used only voluntarily)Particulate respirator: Tight-fitting and filtering face-piece with cartridges.Chemical cartridge respiratorsPowered Air Purifying Respirators (PAPR)Canister respiratorsThese respirators do not supply oxygen and cannot be used in oxygen deficient atmospheres!Important Note: Dust Masks (filtering face piece respirators) are respirators and, if required to be used, are subject to the same requirements as other respirators.
40 Respiratory Protection Selecting the right respirator (continued):Air supplying respirators:Supplied Air SystemsSelf Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA)Never wear a respirator unless it is designed for the hazardand you are authorized and trained to use it.
41 Use foot protection in cases like these: When heavy objects such as barrels or tools could roll or fall onto employees’ feet.When sharp objects such as nails or spikes could pierce ordinary shoes.When molten metal could splash on feet.On hot or wet surfaces.On slippery floors or walking surfaces.
42 Selecting the right safety shoe: Foot ProtectionSelecting the right safety shoe:Safety shoes must be selected for the kinds of hazards present and for the kind of work being done. Choose the right shoes for the job!Be sure they meet current design specifications, such as the ANSI Standard.Safety shoes with impact-resistant toes and heat-resistant soles should be selected to protect against hot surfaces common in roofing and paving work.Some safety shoes will have metal insoles to protect against puncture wounds.Other safety shoes may be electrically conductive for use in explosive atmospheres, or nonconductive to protect against electrical hazards.
43 Selecting the right safety shoe (continued): Foot ProtectionSelecting the right safety shoe (continued):A good jobsite hazard assessment identifies the possible sources of foot injuries.After this has been completed, the right kind of shoes and soles, can be purchased to prevent injuries from such things as slips, falls, and punctures.
44 Hand Protection Use hand protection: When any of these kinds of injuries might result from work duties:Chemical burnsHeat burnsBruisesAbrasionsCutsPuncturesFracturesAmputations
45 Selecting the right hand protection: There are many kinds of protective gloves available. Each style is designed to protect against certain kinds of hazards.Durable gloves made of metal mesh, leather, or canvas protect against cuts, burns, and heat.Fabric and coated fabric gloves protect against dirt and abrasion.Chemical and liquid resistant gloves protect against burns, irritation, and dermatitis. Read the Safety Data Sheet (SDS) of the material being handled to select the best type of glove material.Rubber gloves protect against cuts, punctures, and abrasions.Many SDSs call for the use of “rubber” gloves. “Rubber” is a very generic term and does not necessarily refer to the specific type of glove.
46 Types of rubber gloves: Hand ProtectionTypes of rubber gloves:Various kinds of materials are used to make chemically resistant gloves and clothing.Compatibility and penetration tests are done with the glove materials to determine the best protection.The manufacturer’s SDS and test standards must be referenced when doing a hazard assessment to determine the best type of glove to use.SDS’s do not always indicate the proper glove type. Refer to glove manufacturer too.
47 Hand Protection Types of gloves: Common types used primarily with chemicals:NitrileLatexSyntheticsNeopreneButylOther types:Kevlar: Protects against cuts, slashes, and abrasion.Stainless steel mesh: Protects against cuts and lacerations.Food grade: These are also available.
48 Body protection needs to be worn: When body parts or the entire body is exposed to any of the following sources of injury:Intense light and heat.Splashes of hot metals or liquids.Impacts from tools, machinery, or materials.Cuts or abrasions.Hazardous chemical exposure.Radiation exposure.Full body suit
49 Selecting the right body protection: When choosing protective clothing for body parts exposed to hazards, consider these types of protection:VestsApronsJacketsCoverallsFull body suitsThe material should be compatible with the hazards present and the construction should be able to withstand the environment in which the protection will be used.Cooling vestSleeves and apron
50 Selecting the right body protection (continued): Protective clothing comes in a variety of materials suited to particular hazards.Conduct a hazard assessment to identify potential sources of bodily injury.Use feasible engineering and administrative controls to eliminate the hazards.If the possibility of injury still exists, provide protective clothing that will protect against the specific hazards remaining.Choose the right protection for the job!
51 Summary Assess the workplace for hazards. Use engineering and administrative controls to eliminate or reduce the hazards - before resorting to PPE.Select the appropriate PPE to protect workers against all remaining hazards.Train workers on why the PPE is necessary and how and when it must be used.Train workers on how to care for their PPE and on how to recognize deterioration of the PPE.Make sure workers are properly wearing all required PPE.
52 Personal Protective Equipment This form documents that the training specified above was presented to the listed participants. By signing below, each participant acknowledges receiving this training.Organization:Trainer: Trainer’s Signature:Class Participants:Name: Signature: Date:Documentation SummaryDocumentsRisk Management Center LocationPersonal Protective Equipment Training ProgramMy ContentTMTraining Documentation including:- Classroom training and training course completed- Sign-in sheets- Quizzes- Skills evaluations- Operator CertificatesTraining TrackTM applicationPre-shift Inspection ChecklistsSafety ObservationsJob Hazard Analysis/ Safety Observation ToolTMNear missesIncident TrackTMAccidents and claimsSupplier and manufacturer Certificates of InsuranceCOI TrackTMSafety Data SheetsSDS TrackTM