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SSUSH5 The student will explain specific events and key ideas that brought about the adoption and implementation of the United States Constitution. a.

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Presentation on theme: "SSUSH5 The student will explain specific events and key ideas that brought about the adoption and implementation of the United States Constitution. a."— Presentation transcript:

1 SSUSH5 The student will explain specific events and key ideas that brought about the adoption and implementation of the United States Constitution. a. Explain how weaknesses in the Articles of Confederation and Daniel Shays’ Rebellion led to a call for a stronger central government.

2 Articles of Confederation
Prior to the war ending, the Continental Congress adopted the Articles of Confederation in 1777 as the colonies’ first form of centralized government The Articles were a plan for a loose union, or confederation, which would be under the authority of the Continental Congress -The Articles were designed to be weak because the colonies did not want a powerful central government (Why?)

3 Why the Articles failed
The Articles proved to be too weak The central government was too limited in what it could do

4 Shays’ Rebellion and changes to the Articles
Though unsuccessful, Shays’ Rebellion caused concern for those in power that states might take property away from the wealthy Shays’ Rebellion, and the weaknesses of the Articles, convinced the Confederation Congress that a convention of the states needed to be called in order to revise the Articles In May 1787, delegates met in Philadelphia at the Constitutional Convention to revise the Articles

5 c. Explain the key features of the Constitution, specifically the Great Compromise, separation of powers, limited government, and the issue of slavery.

6 Constitutional Convention
The delegates in Philadelphia decide not to revise the Articles, but rather to write an entirely new document The delegates kept the meetings a secret as not to have outside pressure and opinions put upon them

7 Creating the United States Constitution
The Great Compromise: settled how states would be represented in the new government, setting up the House of Representatives, which appeased the larger states, and the Senate, which appealed to the smaller states (How are states represented in the Senate? Why would this appeal to the smaller states?) The Great Compromise was a merger of the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan

8 Separation of Powers: Created the 3 branches of government to prevent the concentration of power and provide for checks and balances -legislative: made up of the 2 houses of Congress, would make the laws -executive: headed by the president, would implement and enforce the laws passed by Congress -judicial: a system of federal courts, would interpret the laws

9 Limited Government The framers of the Constitution feared misuse/abuse of power The framers listed what powers the federal government does and does not have in Article I of the Constitution Limited government also appears in the Bill of Rights

10 The Issue of Slavery Southern states wanted to count slaves as part of their population in determining representation in the House (the larger a state’s population, the more representation they would have in the House) Northerners opposed this because slaves could not vote or pay taxes

11 Three-Fifths Compromise
A solution to the slavery representation issue was reached with the Three-Fifths Compromise Every five enslaved people would be counted as three free persons for taxes and representation in the House

12 The Issue of Slavery Southerners also wanted the Constitution to forbid government interference in the slave trade and limit Congress’ power to regulate trade As a compromise, the delegates decided: -The new Congress could not tax exports -Could not ban the slave trade until 1808

13 Constitutional Convention
In September 1787 the Confederation Congress approved the new Constitution The task now was to convince at least nine of the thirteen state governments to ratify the document in order for it to take effect

14 SSUSH5 The student will explain specific events and key ideas that brought about the adoption and implementation of the United States Constitution. b. Evaluate the major arguments of the anti-Federalists and Federalists during the debate on ratification of the Constitution as put forth in The Federalist concerning form of government, factions, checks and balances, and the power of the executive, including the roles of Alexander Hamilton and James Madison.

15 Ratifying the Constitution
In order for the Constitution to take effect, nine of the thirteen states had to ratify, or vote in favor of it Two groups emerged in the ratification debate: -The Federalist, who supported ratifying the Constitution -The Anti-Federalist, who opposed the Constitution

16 The Federalists Supported the Constitution
Believed that the system of checks and balances would protect the rights of the people The President would be the leader of the new government, but would have power checked by the legislative branch’s power to impeach Believed that, though the national government would have supreme power, the states would retain many of their powers Alexander Hamilton and James Madison were two of the Federalist

17 Anti-Federalists They believed in the need for a national government, but were concerned over who would retain the supreme power to rule, the states or the national government Made up mostly of western farmers Thomas Jefferson was an Anti-Federalist

18 The Federalist The Federalist were a collection of 85 essays written by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay Published in NY newspapers, The Federalist were a way of explaining to the people how the Constitution worked, and why it was needed

19 Early political cartoon, examining the ratification of the Constitution

20 Ratifying the Constitution
Five states ratified the Constitution within a month, however many Anti-Federalists were holding out until a bill of rights was added To sway Anti-Federalist, Federalists promised to add a bill of rights if the Constitution was ratified By May 1790 all thirteen states had ratified the Constitution

21 d. Analyze how the Bill of Rights serves as a protector of individual and states’ rights.

22 The Bill of Rights The Bill of Rights, drafted by James Madison, are the first 10 Amendments (or changes) to the Constitution They were added as part of an agreement between the Federalist and Anti-Federalist The first 8 Amendments protect the right’s of individuals from the federal government The 9th Amendment, states that the people have other rights not listed The 10th Amendment states that powers not given to the federal government are reserved, or given to the states

23 1st Amendment The 1st Amendment serves as an example of how people’s rights are protected from the federal government The 1st Amendment list the Freedom: -of religion -of press -of speech -to assemble -to petition

24 SSUSH5 The student will explain specific events and key ideas that brought about the adoption and implementation of the United States Constitution. e. Explain the importance of the Presidencies of George Washington and John Adams; include the Whiskey Rebellion, non-intervention in Europe, and the development of political parties (Alexander Hamilton).

25 George Washington In April 1789, Washington was chosen to be the first President of the new government Two of key members of Washington’s cabinet were Thomas Jefferson, Alexander Hamilton

26 The Whiskey Rebellion In 1791, Congress imposed a direct tax on the manufacture of whiskey Western farmers, the main manufactures of whiskey, rebelled against the tax in 1794 Washington orders 15,000 troops to put down the rebellion The rebels disperse without fighting, ending the rebellion What message did the new government send by ordering troops to put down the rebellion?

27 Formation of political parties
During Washington’s 1st term in office Congress began to split into factions caused by Secretary of the Treasury Hamilton’s financial programs Supporters of Hamilton’s programs were called Federalist, while opponents were called Democratic-Republicans, or Republicans (not to be confused with today’s Republican Party)

28 Washington’s Foreign Policy
During the French Revolution, France declared war on England: the United States was divided over who to support In 1793, Washington declared that the US would be “friendly and impartial” towards both countries The British however, began seizing American ships headed to French ports

29 Washington’s Foreign Policy
Jay’s Treaty: John Jay was sent to Britain to negotiate a settlement in order to avoid war The treaty helped prevent war between the US and Britain, but did little to ease tension between the two countries Pinckney’s Treaty: The US negotiated with Spain to allow it free access to the Mississippi River and the Port of New Orleans

30 George Washington Washington leaves office after his 2nd term-he warns against political parties and foreign alliances Federalist John Adams is elected the 2nd President of the U.S. in 1796

31 John Adams Upset with Jay’s Treaty, the French began seizing U.S. ships causing an undeclared navel war between France and the U.S. Negotiations between the two countries ended the hostilities in 1800

32 John Adams The Alien and Sedition Acts:
-Passed in 1798, the Acts were aimed at weakening the Republican Party -The Acts would put voting restriction on immigrants who tended to vote Republican -The Acts also made it against the law to criticize the government, making it difficult for the Republicans to speak out against the Federalist

33 John Adams The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions:
-Written in secret by Jefferson and Madison, the Resolutions argued the states had the right to protect the people from unjust federal laws

34 John Adams John Adams lost the election of 1800 to Thomas Jefferson in large part because many people were angered over the Alien and Sedition Acts Though the Federalist controlled the army, the presidency, and Congress, they allowed power to peacefully transfer to the Republicans

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