2 13.1 Ecologists study relationships Ecology: the study of the interactions among living things, and between living things and their surroundings.Eco = environmentology = study ofThis is studied at different levels
3 LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION 1. organism - an individual living thing, such as an alligator.Organism
4 LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION 2. population is a group of the same species that lives in one area.- Several alligators living together.PopulationOrganism
5 LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION 3. A community is a group of different species that live together in one area.- Alligators, birds, fish, plantsall living together in a swamp.CommunityPopulationOrganism
6 LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION 4. An ecosystem includes all of the organisms as well as the non-living things such as; climate, soil, water, rocks and other in a given area.EcosystemCommunityPopulationOrganism
7 LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION 5. A biome is a major regional or global community of organisms characterized by the climate conditions and plant communities that thrive there.BiomeEcosystemCommunityPopulationOrganism
8 Ecological research methods include observation, experimentation, and modeling. Direct surveys used for easy to spot and follow species employ binoculars or scopes.Indirect surveys are used for species that are difficult to track and include looking for other signs of their presence.Feces or a recent kill.
9 Counting Population Size _____________________________________2. _____________________________________Quadrat SamplingTAGGING / RADIO TELEMETRYMark and Recapture –Capture a number organisms- mark/tag themRecapture a portionThe number of marked organisms if proportional to the size of the whole population.
10 Counting Population Size What is the population of turtles in the rectangle: _______
11 QUADRAT SAMPLING MEASURE THE SIZE OF THE SQUARE: _______________ TIME YOURSELF AND COUNT THE NUMBER OF TURTLES: ____DETERMINE HOW MANY SQUARES CAN FIT INTO THE LARGER RECTANGLE ON THE PREVIOUS PAGE: _________CALCULATE THE POPULATION OF TURTLES IN THE RECTANGLE: ___________________________________Where your two numbers relatively close? _____________________What is the advantage of quadrat sampling? _____________________What is the disadvantage of quadrat sampling? _____________________What type of organism do you think would be best suited for quadrat sampling? ____________________________________________________
12 Experiments: Performed in the lab or in the field. Lab experiments:Positive = More controlNegative = Doesn’t always reflect what happens in natureField experiments:Positive = More accurate picture of what happens in natureNegative = May not help determine cause and effect
13 Modeling:Computer and Mathematical models“What would happen if…”Predict outcomesAllows scientists to learn about organisms or ecosystems in ways that would not be possible in a natural or lab setting.
14 Section 13.1 ReviewWhat are the five different levels of organization studied by ecologists?2. Describe the three general methods used by ecologists to study organisms.3. What ecological research methods would you use to study bird migration? Explain your choices.How might an ecologist use modeling to study fire in a forest ecosystem? What might be some key variable used to create the model?
16 What makes up an ecosystem? 13.2 Biotic and Abiotic FactorsWhat makes up an ecosystem?ALL LIVING THINGSBACTERIA-PROTIST-FUNGUS-PLANTS-ANIMALSBIOTIC:ALL NON-LIVING THINGSWATER-SUN-SNOW-CLOUDS-ROCKS-MOUNTAINSABIOTIC:
17 Changing one factor can affect many other factors BiodiversityBiodiversity is the assortment, or variety, of living things in an ecosystem.Rainforests have more biodiversity than other locations in the world, but are threatened by human activities.Keystone species is a species that has an unusually large effect on its ecosystem.Example = Beaverkeystone
18 creation ofwetlandecosystemincreased waterfowlPopulationincreased fishpopulationnesting sites for birdskeystone species
19 Section 13.2 ReviewSelect an ecosystem that is familiar to you and describe the biotic and abiotic factors that exist there.2. How would the removal of a keystone species affect an ecosystem’s biodiversity?3. Name an abiotic factor. Explain how a change in an abiotic factor would affect biodiversity.Humans are sometimes described as being a keystone species. Does this label fit? Why or why not?
20 13.3 Energy in Ecosystems`Producers provide energy for other organisms in an ecosystem.Producers- make their own food – also called autotrophsConsumers – get energy by eating – also called heterotrophsAlmost all producers obtain energy from sunlight.Photosynthesis in most producers uses sunlight as an energy source.Chemosynthesis in prokaryote (bacteria) producers uses chemicals as an energy source.Video clip
21 Section 13.3 ReviewHow does the stability of an ecosystem depend on its producers?2. What are the two processes used by producers to obtain energy?3. Few producers live deep below a lake’s surface. Suggest an explanation for this pattern.Could producers survive without consumers? Explain why or why not?5. Could consumers survive without producers? Why or why not?
22 13.4 Food Chains and Food Web Food chains and food webs model the flow of energy in an ecosystem.Show feeding relationships for one chain of producers and consumers in an ecosystemArrow always points in the direction the energy is going.DESERT COTTONTAILGRAMA GRASSHARRIS’S HAWK
23 Consumers are not all alike. Herbivores eat only plants.Carnivores eat only animals.Omnivores eat both plants and animals.Detritivores eat dead organic matter.Decomposers are detritivores that break down organic matter into simpler compounds.
24 Specialists are consumers that primarily eat one specific organism or a very small number of organisms.Ex: Florida Snail Kite – eats only snailsGeneralists are consumers that have a varied diet.Ex: Grey wolf
25 Trophic Levels- Feeding levels in a food chain Primary consumers are herbivores that eat producers.Secondary consumers are carnivores that eat herbivores.Tertiary consumers are carnivores that eat secondary consumers.Omnivores, such as humans that eat both plants and animals, may be listed at different trophic levels in different food chains.
26 Food WebShows many interconnected food chains in an ecosystem
27 Identify three food chains from this food web. copyright cmassengale
28 A Salt MarshFood WebName the producers in the salt marsh community. ___________________________Name four primary consumers in the salt marsh community. __________________ ___________________ ___________________ _____________________Name four secondary consumers in the salt marsh community. _________________ ___________________ ___________________ _____________________Name an animal in the salt marsh community that eats both plants and animals. _________________________________________________________________Name the two animals at the top of the salt marsh food web. _________________________________________________________________Why are the decomposers shown as the are in this picture? __________________________________________________________________Who is the “highest’ consumer? ________________________________
30 Section 13.4 ReviewWhy are food chains especially useful for describing the relationships of specialists?2. What happens to energy as it flows through a food web?Only a small percentage of all consumers are specialists. What danger does a specialist face that a generalist does not?How might the stability of an ecosystem be affected if all the decomposers were suddenly removed?
31 Water cycles through the environment. The hydrologic, or water cycle is the circular pathway of water on Earth.Organisms all have bodies made mostly of water.precipitationcondensationtranspirationevaporationwater storagein oceansurfacerunofflakegroundwaterseepage
32 Elements essential for life also cycle through ecosystems. A biogeochemical cycle is the movement of a chemical through the biological and geological parts of an ecosystem.The Oxygen cycle involves photosynthesis and respiration.Oxygen cycles indirectly through an ecosystem by the cycling of other nutrients.
33 Carbon is the building block of life. The carbon cycle moves carbon from the atmosphere, through the food web, and returns to the atmosphere.Carbon is emitted by the burning of fossil fuels.Some carbon is stored for long periods of time in areas called carbon sinks.fossil fuelsphotosynthesiscarbon dioxidedissolved in waterdecompositionof organismsrespirationcarbondioxidein aircombustion
34 The nitrogen cycle mostly takes place underground. Some bacteria convert gaseous nitrogen into ammonia through a process called nitrogen fixation.nitrogen-fixing bacteria live in roots of plants; others live freely in the soil.bacteria change the ammonium into nitrate.moves through the food web and returns to the soil during decomposition.nitrogen inatmosphereanimalsdenitrifyingbacterianitrifyingammoniumammonificationdecomposersplantnitrogen-fixingbacteria in soilbacteria in rootsnitratesnitrites
35 The phosphorus cycle takes place at and below ground level. released by the weathering of rocks.moves through the food web and returns to the soil during decomposition.leaches into groundwater from the soil and is locked in sediments.added to environment by both mining and agriculturegeologic upliftingrainweathering ofphosphate from rocksrunoffsedimentationforms new rocksleachingphosphate in solutionanimalsplantsdecomposersphosphatein soil
36 Section 13.5 ReviewHow does the hydrologic cycle move water through the environment?What are the four elements that cycle through ecosystems and why are they important?Why might farmers plants legumes such as peas to improve the nitrogen levels in their soil?Explain the importance of decomposers to the overall biogeochemical cycle
37 An energy pyramid shows the distribution of energy among trophic levels. energy transferredenergylostEnergy pyramids compare energy used by producers and other organisms on trophic levels.Up to 90 percent of the energy = lost as heat between each levelOnly 10 percent of the energy at each tier is transferred from one trophic level to the next.
38 Pyramids for Biomass and numbers Biomass is a measure of the total dry mass of organisms in a given area.tertiaryconsumerssecondaryprimaryproducers75 g/m2150g/m2675g/m22000g/m2
39 A pyramid of numbers shows the numbers of individual organisms at each trophic level in an ecosystem.tertiaryconsumerssecondaryprimaryproducers55000500,0005,000,000A vast number of producers are required to support even a few top level consumers.
40 Section 13.6 ReviewHow does an energy pyramid help to describe energy flow in a food web?2. What is the difference between a biomass pyramid and a pyramid of numbers?3. How would you draw a pyramid of numbers for a dog with fleas? What shape would the pyramid take?If each level in a food chain typically loses 90% of the energy it takes in, and the producer level uses 1000 kilocalories of energy, how much of that energy is left after the third trophic level?