Presentation on theme: "Targeting, and Positioning for Competitive Advantage"— Presentation transcript:
1 Targeting, and Positioning for Competitive Advantage PRINCIPLES OF MARKETINGEighth EditionPhilip Kotler and Gary ArmstrongChapter 7Market Segmentation,Targeting, and Positioningfor Competitive Advantage
2 Steps in Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning This CTR corresponds to Figure 7-1 on p. 196 and relates to the material on pp. 196.Steps in Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning6. Develop MarketingMix for Each Target SegmentSteps in Segmentation, Targeting, and PositioningMarket Segmentation. Market segmentation is the process of dividing a market into distinct groups of buyers who might require separate products or marketing mixes. All buyers have unique needs and wants. Still it is usually possible in consumer markets to identify relatively homogeneous portions or segments of the total market according to shared preferences, attitudes, or behaviors that distinguish them from the rest of the market. These segments may require different products and/or separate mixes.Market Targeting. Market targeting is the process of evaluating each market segment's attractiveness and selecting one or more segments to enter. Given effective market segmentation, the firm must choose which markets to serve and how to serve them.Discussion Note: In targeting markets to serve the firm must consider its resources and objectives in setting strategy.Market Positioning. Market positioning is the process of formulating competitive positioning for a product and a detailed marketing mix. Marketers must plan how to present the product to the consumer.Discussion Note: The product's position is defined by how consumers view it on important attributes.MarketPositioning5. Develop Positioningfor Each Target Segment4. Select TargetSegment(s)MarketTargeting3. Develop Measuresof Segment Attractiveness2. Develop Profilesof Resulting SegmentsMarket Segmentation1. Identify Basesfor Segmenting the Market
3 Step 1. Market Segmentation Levels of Market Segmentation Mass MarketingSame product to all consumers(no segmentation)Segment MarketingDifferent products to one or more segments(some segmentation)Step 1. Market Segmentation Levels of Market SegmentationStages in Market OrientationThis CTR relates to the discussion on ppNiche MarketingDifferent products to subgroups within segments( more segmentation)MicromarketingProducts to suit the tastes of individuals or locations(complete segmentation)Stages in Market OrientationSellers traditionally have passed through three stages of orientation or philosophy of identifying markets that lead to greater use of segmentation, targeting, and positioning strategies:Mass Marketing. In mass marketing, the seller produces, mass distributes, and mass promotes one product to all buyers. The argument for mass marketing is that it [should] lead to the lowest costs (through economies of scale) and prices and create the largest potential market.Segment Marketing. Here the seller identifies market segments, selects one or more of them, and develops products and marketing mixes tailored to meeting the needs of those selected segments. As more competitors adopt this practice, fragmentation of the market leads toNiche Marketing. Here the seller focuses on subgroups within market segments who may seek a special combination of benefits.Micromarketing. This is the practice of tailoring products and marketing programs to suit the tastes of specific individuals and locations.
4 Step 1. Market Segmentation Bases for Segmenting Consumer Markets This CTR relates to Table 7-1 on p. 203 and the material on ppStep 1. Market Segmentation Bases for Segmenting Consumer MarketsGeographicNations, states,regions or citiesBases for Segmenting Consumer MarketsGeographic Segmentation. Geographic segmentation divides the market into different geographic units based upon physical proximity. While location determines how geographic segmentation is done, it is also true that many consumer products have attribute differences associated with regional tastes.Demographic Segmentation. Dividing the market into groups based upon variables such as sex, age, family size, family life cycle, income, education, occupation, religious affiliation, or nationality are all demographic segmentations. Consumer needs often vary with demographic variables. Demographic information is also relatively easy to measure. Age and life-cycle stage, sex, and income are three major demographic bases for segmentation.Psychographic Segmentation. Psychographic Segmentation divides the market into groups based on social class, life style, or personality characteristics. Psychographic segmentation cuts across demographic differences. Social class preferences reflect values and preferences that remain constant even as income increases. Life style describes helps group markets around ideas such as health, youthful, or environmentally conscious. Personalities may transcend other differences in markets and may be transferred to products themselves.Behavioral Segmentation. Behavioral Segmentation divides markets into groups based on their knowledge, attitudes, uses, or responses to a product. Types of of behavioral segmentation are based upon occasions, benefits sought, user status, usage rates, loyalty, buyer readiness stage, and attitude.DemographicAge, gender, family size and life cycle, or incomePsychographicSocial class, lifestyle, or personalityBehavioralOccasions, benefits, uses, or responses
5 Using Multiple Segmentation Bases: Geodemographics This CTR combines text and extra-textual information and relates to material on ppUsing Multiple Segmentation Bases: GeodemographicsGeodemographicsGeodemographics combine demographic, geographic, psychographic, and behavioristic segmentation variables to identify markets for products much more narrowly than other segmentation strategies. Geodemographics lends itself best to marketing mix strategies utilizing technological innovation to reach consumers with product information. The two marketing areas that benefit most from geodemography are direct marketing via mail and telephone and computer-based marketing.Direct Marketing. The direct marketing industry benefits from increasingly specific information on potential customers. Use of telephones and postal mailings without prior qualification of leads is generating grass roots movements for regulation. Geodemography makes it more likely that direct marketers will contact more people who have already expressed an interest in the product or are very likely, statistically speaking, to appreciate information on a relevant product for their geodemographic group. In discussion, you may want to raise questions about the role of marketing ethics in generating and using these increasingly specific databases.Computer-based Marketing. Millions of people now subscribe to computer shopping services such as AMERICA ON-LINE and PRODIGY that provides consumers with on-line information and services via their personal computer and modem. PC Consumers can bank, order from catalogs, receive information, check stock prices and do trades -- all right at their desktop. While the user requests information on-line, mainframe computers track their information search patterns and record orders and requests for more detailed information to create more databases segmentation.
6 Step 1. Market Segmentation Bases for Segmenting Business Markets This CTR corresponds to Table 7-3 on p. 213 relates to the material on ppStep 1. Market Segmentation Bases for Segmenting Business MarketsPersonalCharacteristicsDemographicsMajor Segmentation Variables for Business MarketsDemographics. Industry segmentation focuses on which industries buy the product. Company size can be used. Geographic location may be used to group businesses by proximity.Operating Variables. Business markets can be segmented by technology (what customer technologies should we focus on?), user/nonuser status (heavy, medium, light), or customer capabilities (those needing many or few services).Purchasing Approaches. Five approaches are possible. Segmentation can be by purchasing function organization (centralized or decentralized), power structure (selecting companies controlled by a functional specialty), the nature of existing relationships (current desirable customers or new desirable customers), general purchase policies (focus on companies that prefer some arrangements over others such as leasing, related support service contracts, sealed bids), or purchasing criteria (focus on noncompensatory criteria such as price, service, or quality).Situational Factors. Situational segmentation may be based upon urgency (such as quick delivery needs), specific application (specific uses for the product) or size of order (few large or many small accounts).Personal Characteristics. Personal comparisons can lead to segmentation by buyer-seller similarity (companies with similar personnel and values), attitudes toward risk (focus on risk-taking or risk-avoiding companies), or loyalty (focus on companies that show high loyalty to their suppliers.Basesfor SegmentingBusinessMarketsSituationalFactorsOperatingCharacteristicsPurchasingApproaches
7 Step 1. Market Segmentation Bases for Segmenting International Markets This CTR relates to the discussion on ppIndustrial MarketsSegmenting International MarketsGeographic Segmentation. This works well when proximity is the critical segmentation variable.Economic Factors. Countries might be grouped by population income levels or by overall level of economic development.Political and Legal Factors. Segmentation may be most appropriate in terms of the level of government stability, monetary regulations, receptivity to foreign firms, or the amount of bureaucracy encountered when conducting business.Cultural Factors. Segmentation by common language, religion, or values might be the best way to proceed.Intermarket Segmentation. This involves forming segments of consumer who have similar needs and buying behavior even though they are located in different countries.GeographicEconomicPolitical/LegalCulturalIntermarket
8 Step 1. Market Segmentation Requirements for Effective Segmentation MeasurableEffective SegmentationThis CTR relates to the material on pp. 215.Step 1. Market Segmentation Requirements for Effective SegmentationAccessibleSubstantialSize, purchasing power, profilesof segments can be measured.Requirements for Effective SegmentationMeasurability . This refers to the degree to which the size and purchasing power of the segments can be measured. The accuracy and availability of measures of market potential are important.Accessibility. This refers to the degree to which a market segment can be reached and served. Identifying a segment is useless if the marketer has limited access to the customer.Substantiality. This refers to the degree to which the segments are large or profitable enough to service.Actionability. This is the degree to which an effective marketing program can be designed for attracting and serving segments. Company resource limitations figure prominently in actionability issues.Segments must be effectivelyreached and served.DifferentialSegments must be large or profitable enough to serve.ActionableSegments must respond differently to different marketing mix elements & actions.Must be able to attract and serve the segments.
9 Step 2. Market Targeting Evaluating Market Segments This CTR relates to the material on ppSegment Size and GrowthAnalyze sales, growth rates and expected profitability.Segment Structural AttractivenessConsider effects of: Competitors, Availability of Substitute Products and, the Power of Buyers & Suppliers.Company Objectives and ResourcesCompany skills & resources relative to the segment(s).Look for Competitive Advantages.Evaluating Market SegmentsSegment Size and Growth. The company must collect and analyze data on current dollar sales, projected sales-growth, and expected profit margins for each market segment.Segment Structural Attractiveness. Long run attractiveness includes an assessment of current and potential competitors, the threats of substitutes, and the power of buyers and suppliers.Company Objectives and Resources. The company’s resources and core business strengths should also fit well with the market segment opportunities.
10 Step 2. Market Targeting Market Coverage Strategies This CTR corresponds to Figure 7-4 on p. 217 and relates to the discussion on ppCompanyMarketingMixMarketCompanyMarketing Mix 1Segment 1CompanyMarketing Mix 2Segment 2A. Undifferentiated MarketingMarket Coverage StrategiesUndifferentiated Marketing. This strategy uses the same marketing mix for the entire market. This strategy focuses on the common needs of the market rather than differences in it. Undifferentiated marketing provides economies of scale on product costs but may be limited in application.Differentiated Marketing. This strategy targets several market segments and designs separate marketing mixes for each of them. Product and marketing variation also helps company image and may produce loyalty in consumers as they change segments.Concentrated Marketing. This strategy commits a company to pursue a large share of one or more submarkets. Economies and segment knowledge and service are strengths of this approach but risk due to smaller market size is greater.CompanyMarketing Mix 3Segment 3Segment 1CompanyMarketingMixSegment 2B. Differentiated MarketingSegment 3C. Concentrated Marketing
11 Step 2. Market Targeting Choosing a Market-Coverage Strategy This CTR relates to the discussion on ppCompanyResourcesChoosing a Market-Coverage StrategyFactors to consider in choosing a market-coverage strategy include:Company Resources. Sometimes the resources of a firm make a strategy decision fairly simple. For example, a small firm with limited resources is more likely to be successful implementing a concentrated strategy than a full coverage one.Product Variability. The higher the degree of product variation or differentiation, the greater the likelihood that a differentiated or concentrated strategy will be necessary to meet consumer demands for choice.Stage in Life Cycle. Introduction and early growth stages of the product life cycle are more likely to support single-version products. As the market matures, greater consumer numbers and a wider variety of tastes demand more differentiation.Discussion Note: The cost of developing new products is often given as a reason for single-version rollouts. But it is important to remember that consumers don’t know how to use new products as well and so it makes sense to keep a product simple to help consumer learn about its benefits first and then let their experience with product use guide the introduction of additional features.Market Variability. If taste differences in the market are small, then undifferentiated marketing is appropriate.Competitor’s Marketing Strategies. Selecting a coverage strategy is not done in a vacuum. When the market is already served by competitor using a segmentation strategy, undifferentiated marketing is less likely to be successful. However, competitors using undifferentiated strategies may be vulnerable to a well-planned and executed differentiation strategy.ProductVariabilityProduct’s Stagein the Product Life CycleMarketVariabilityCompetitors’Marketing Strategies
12 Step 3. Positioning for Competitive Advantage Product’s Position - the place the product occupies in consumers’ minds relative to competing products; i.e. Volvo positions on “safety”.Marketers must:Plan positions to give products the greatest advantageDevelop marketing mixes to create planned positions
13 Step 3. Positioning for Competitive Advantage: Strategies Product PositioningThis CTR relates to the material on pp. 220.Step 3. Positioning for Competitive Advantage: StrategiesProductClassProductAttributesAway fromCompetitorsBenefitsOfferedMarket Positioning StrategiesA product's position is the way the product is defined by consumers on important attributes. More directly, product position is the place the product occupies in the consumers’ minds relative to competing products.Discussion Note: Students may need prompting to realize that marketers don’t control the product’s position, consumers do. The strategies discussed below represent the inputs marketers make to influence how the consumer ultimately determine the product’s position.A product's position can be based on a number of variables including:Product Attributes. This positions the product on unique or distinguishing features it possesses such as a low price, unique technology, versatility or other features.Benefits Offered. Positioning can be based upon the specific value provided.Usage Occasions. The product usage associated can with special occasions or values ("Andre for the Holidays")Users. A product can be positioned to its most important users (Miller Beer's heavy user positioning, "Tastes Great Less Filling")Against a Competitor. This strategy is appropriate for substitutes that cost less.Away from Competitors. This positions the product as unique in some respect and/or worth it.Product Class. The company may vary positioning as needed in relation to one or more competitors.BAEDCHGFAgainst aCompetitorUsageOccasionsUsers
14 Steps to Choosing and Implementing a Positioning Strategy Step 1. Identifying a set of possible competitive advantages: Competitive Differentiation.Step 2. Selecting the right competitive advantage.Step 3. Effectively communicating adn delivering the chosen position to the market.
15 Developing Competitive Differentiation ProductServiceDeveloping Competitive DifferentiationPositioning for Competitive AdvantageThis CTR relates to the discussion on ppAreas for CompetitiveDifferentiationCompetitive AdvantageCompetitive Advantage is created by differentiating the product from those of competitors. Key areas for competitive differentiation include:Product Differentiation. This can be based upon features or performance.Teaching Tip: Drive a Hyundai and a Lexus on the same afternoon to experience performance differentiation.Services Differentiation. This may come from delivery, installation, repair, or training advantages.Teaching Tip: Does anyone think that television cable service would not improve if there were more than one cable provider per area?Personnel Differentiation. This is derived from a superior workforce.Teaching Tip: Surely students appreciate their experience in your class versus those marketing classes at that other school in state?Image Differentiation. This can be generated from effective use of symbols in association with product consumption.Teaching Tip: Examples of effective use of symbols include Prudential Securities, “Rock Solid - Market Wise” and Merrill Lynch “Bullish on America.”PersonnelImage
16 Selecting the Right Competitive Advantages Promoting DifferencesThis CTR relates to the material on ppDiscussion Note: The key to selecting the right competitive advantage is to develop a unique selling proposition (USP) for the product and stick to it.Selecting the Right Competitive AdvantagesImportantProfitableDistinctiveSelecting the Right Competitive AdvantageDifferences selected to promote competitive advantage should satisfy the following criteria:Important. The difference must deliver a highly valued benefit to target buyers.Distinctive. Competitors do not offer the difference, or the company offers the difference in a more distinctive way.Superior. The difference should be superior to other ways that customers might obtain the same benefit.Communicable. The difference is communicable and visible to buyers.Preemptive. Competitors cannot easily copy the difference. This may be a result of innovative technology, production economies, distribution economies, and/or proprietary rights.Affordable. Buyers in the target market must be able to pay for the difference.Profitable. The difference must be profitable for the company to offer.CriteriaforDeterminingWhichDifferencestoPromoteAffordableSuperiorCommunicablePreemptive