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Chapter 10 Groundwater What you NEED to Know
The Hydrosphere 97% of water is in the.001% is in the.0091% is in 2% is in.3% is
Precipitation & Groundwater Precipitation - Runoff - Interception - Evaporation
Groundwater Storage Porosity – amount of Well sorted sediments have more pore space than poorly sorted sediments
Zone of Saturation Depth under the Upper boundary of the ZOS is called the
Zone of Saturation - continued Water in Zone of Saturation is called Above the water table is
Zone of Saturation - continued Gravitational water – water pulled down by gravity to water table Capillary water – water drawn up from water table by
Groundwater Movement Ability of material to allow water to move through is called Permeability is directly related to pore size (bigger pores, higher permeability)
Groundwater flows in the direction of slope of the water table. Flow velocity Groundwater Movement – cont.
Groundwater flows through permeable layers, called aquafers. (ex. Sand, gravel) Impermeable layers are called (ex. Clay, silt) Groundwater Movement – cont.
10.2 Groundwater Erosion & Deposition
Dissolution by Groundwater Most groundwater contains carbonic acid CO 2 + H 2 O H 2 CO 3 H 2 CO 3 H + + HCO 3 -
Hydrogen ions react with calcium carbonate & dissolve it. CaCO 3 + H + Ca 2+ + HCO 3 - Calcium carbonate then precipitates out elsewhere, and CO 2 & H 2 O are released. Dissolution by Groundwater
Caves Form when groundwater Limestone is also deposited as
Karst Topography Groundwater erodes Caves can collapse, forming Sinks are places where streams (called sinking streams) drain into underground cave systems
Groundwater Deposits Hard water has high amounts of dissolved calcium, magnesium and / or iron. Hard water can leave deposits in –Pipes –Caves stalactites & stalagmites
10.3 Groundwater Systems
Springs Where an aquifer and an aquiclude come into contact with the surface, water is discharged, in a
Aquiclude Aquifer Spring
Hot Springs & Geysers Where aquifers descend deep into Earth’s crust, or where they are heated by recent igneous activity, hot springs & geysers result.
Wells Wells are holes dug to reach groundwater. Drawdown: wells lower the water table around them.
Wells - continued Recharge: precipitation adds water back into the zone of saturation.
Artesian Wells & Springs In confined aquifers, the recharge area is generally at higher elevation than the rest of the aquifer. Discharge areas (wells & springs) are therefore under pressure
Threats to Groundwater
Sources of Pollution
Groundwater Chapter 9, Section 2.
Ch 16 Groundwater.
Groundwater Chapter 16.
Groundwater and Karst Topography
CHAPTER 6.3 WATER BENEATH THE SURFACE
Draw a meander and label these locations: erosion, deposition, faster water, and slower water. Warm – Up 2/6.
Earth Science -presents- Groundwater.
Groundwater Chapter 6.3.
Water Beneath the Surface
Groundwater. Where’s the Water? Water can be reached from anywhere on Earth if a deep enough well is drilled All water on and in Earth’s crust makes up.
SGES 1302 INTRODUCTION TO EARTH SYSTEM
Groundwater Chapter 10.
Groundwater Main topics: Location of groundwater
GROUNDWATER hydrosphere = includes water in and on Earth’s crust
Chapter 16- Groundwater What is groundwater?
Terms to Know Capillarity= attraction of water to the surface of rocks. Moves against gravity. Porosity= The size of the gaps between rocks Permeability=
Water. The World’s Water Approx. 97% of the Earth’s water is salt water Approx. 3% is fresh water. – Of this 3%, most is frozen in the ice caps and.
GROUNDWATER. FRESHWATER IS ONE OF EARTH’S MOST ABUNDANT AND IMPORTANT RENEWABLE RESOURCES.
Groundwater What is Groundwater???? The water that has seeped into the soil and rock. The underground area is broken down into 4 areas… 1) Zone of Aeration.
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