Presentation on theme: "Confined Space Entry This lesson will cover both non-permit required and permit required confined space. Major references are: 29 CFR 1910.146 and ANSI."— Presentation transcript:
1 Confined Space EntryThis lesson will cover both non-permit required and permit required confined space. Major references are: 29 CFR and ANSI Z Confined space entry is a high hazard activity, and a rigid confined space entry program should be developed and practiced. This lesson is designed to take approximately one hour to complete.
2 Disclaimer This training material presents very important information. Your organization must do an evaluation of all exposures, applicable codes and regulations, and establish proper controls, training, and protective measures to effectively control exposures and assure compliance.This program is neither a determination that the conditions and practices of your organization are safe nor a warranty that reliance upon this program will prevent accidents and losses or satisfy local, state or federal regulations.All procedures and training, whether required by law or not, should be implemented and reviewed by safety and risk management professionals, and legal counsel to ensure that all local, state and federal requirements are satisfied.
3 Course Outline – Confined Space Entry Key DefinitionsExamples of Confined SpacesConfined Space Entry StandardProgram ElementsResponsibilitiesPermit SystemAtmospheric MonitoringFlammable Atmosphere MonitoringPermissible Exposure Limit (PEL)Toxic HazardsEntry PreparationRescue servicesProgram Audit
4 Definitions and key points of confined spaces: Key DefinitionsDefinitions and key points of confined spaces:Large enough for entry & workLimited means of entry & exitNot designed for continuous occupancyThe definition of confined space: A space that is large enough and so configured that an employee can bodily enter and perform assigned work. It has limited or restricted means for entry and exit and is not designed for permanent occupancy.Limited egress does not necessarily mean just one way in and out.Breaking the plane of the space opening with any part of your body is considered entry.If work is not routine in a space, it is tough to classify it as designed for continuous occupancy. A space designed for continuous occupancy should have its own environmental controls, such as a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system.All three of the above must be met to deem a space “confined.”Definition of Non- Permit Required Confined Space (NPRCS): A confined space that does not contain or have the potential to contain an atmosphere hazard capable of causing death or physical harm. The atmosphere should be proven by air monitoring to be free of hazard. Further, the work being performed inside the non-permit space may not produce a safety or health hazard (e.g., grinding, welding, painting, etc.)
5 Examples of Confined Spaces A Permit Required Confined Space (PRCS) is a confined space with one or more of the following:Hazardous atmosphere potentialEngulfment hazardHazardous internal configurationOther serious safety hazard“Entry” is considered to have occurred as soon as any part of theentrant’s body breaks the plane of an opening into the space.As discussed in the beginning, the definition of PRCS is:a confined space that has one or more of the following characteristics:--Contains or has potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere--Contains a material that has the potential for engulfing an entrant--Has an internal configuration such that an entrant could be trapped or asphyxiated by inwardly converging walls or by a floor which slopes downward and tapers to a smaller cross section, AND--Contains any other recognized serious safety or health hazard.--Other serious safety or health hazards might include mechanical (moving parts), exposed electrical, slip/fall hazards and many others
6 Examples of Confined Spaces Typical examples of confined spaces:Non-permit required:Utility closetsBelow grade trenchesStorage vaultsScroll casesRailcarPermit required:Chemical storage tanksPlumbing or electrical vaultsDrainage sumpsHoppersHere are some examples of confined spaces. This list is not all inclusive. Any of these spaces have the potential of being or becoming permit required confined spaces. An assessment must be performed prior to each entry to make a determination.
7 Confined Space Entry Standard Confined Space Entry Standard as defined by OSHA:Establish definitions of spaces, roles and responsibilities and requirements for entryRequires a written programRequires employers to establish a permit system for entryDefines hazards within confined spacesRequires all confined spaces to be identified and hazards to be communicated to employeesIdentifies and evaluates permit space hazards before allowing employee entryTests conditions in the permit space before entry operations and monitors the space during entryThe next 3 slides list the Confined Space Entry standard as determined by OSHA.
8 Confined Space Entry Standard Confined Space Entry Standard as defined by OSHA (continued):Perform in the following sequence, appropriate testing for atmospheric hazards: oxygen, combustible gases or vapors, and toxic gases or vaporsImplement necessary measures to prevent unauthorized entryControl hazards necessary for safe permit-space entry operationsEstablish and implement the means, procedures and practices --such as specifying acceptable entry conditions, isolating the permit space, providing barriers, verifying acceptable entry conditions, purging, making inert, flushing, or ventilation of the permit space--to eliminateProvide, maintain, and require, at no cost to the employee, the use of personal protective equipment and any other equipment necessary for safe entry, e.g., testing, monitoring, ventilating, communications, and lighting equipment; barriers, shields, and laddersEnsure that at least one attendant is stationed outside the permit space for the duration of entry operations
9 Confined Space Entry Standard Confined Space Entry Standard as defined by OSHA (continued):Coordinate entry operations when employees of more than one employer are to be working in the permit spaceImplement appropriate procedures for summoning rescue and emergency servicesEstablish, in writing, and implement a system for the preparation, issuance, use, and cancellation of entry permitsIdentify employee job dutiesReview established entry operations and annually revise the permit-space entry programWhen an attendant is required to monitor multiple spaces, implement the procedures to be followed during an emergency in one or more of the permit spaces being monitoredMaintain canceled entry permits for at least one year
10 Program Elements Program Elements: Identification and Labeling: Determine what the confined spaces are and ensure proper labelingHazard Identification: Identify hazards and air monitoring and ventilation conductedAtmospheric hazards (oxygen, flammability, toxicity)Inherent or introduced from work to be donePhysical hazardsEntry conditionsEquipmentResponsibilitiesEmergency rescueTrainingAuditHere are 8 program elements that should be included in the Confined Space Program. We will discuss these elements as we move through this training. The lesson is loosely broken down into these areas.OSHA 29 CFR APP A provides a flowchart of employers to use to assist in determining confined spaces.
11 Responsibilities of personnel: AttendantEntrantConfined space entry supervisorRescue personnelEveryone involved in the work has specific responsibilities that must be met to ensure the health and safety of all workers. Employee participation in this area is the key to safe and productive work. In the next few slides we will discuss the responsibilities of the following:AttendantEntrantConfined space supervisorRescue personnel
12 Attendant responsibilities: Attend pre-entry briefingEvaluate and know the hazards of the spaceMonitor and maintain communication with entrantControl access to the spaceRemain outside until relieved. Do not enter space even for rescueOnly enter if allowed by permit, if trained and if equippedSummon rescueTake action with unauthorized entrantsNo other duties to be performed while on watchMaintain accountability of entrantsThe responsibilities of the attendant:The attendant may have no other responsibilities other than monitoring the entrant during a permit entry.Evaluate and know the hazards of the spaceControl access and keep track of the entrants.You may have to summon rescue or perform a non-entry rescue but you are not allowed to enter the space and perform a rescue. (Unless relieved of duties by another qualified attendant)Trigger an evacuation if conditions present a hazard.
13 Entrant responsibilities: Attend pre-entry briefingKnow hazardsFollow permit requirementsProperly use equipmentCommunicate with attendantAlert attendant to dangerExit space when danger is recognized or when ordered to by attendantHere are the responsibilities of the entrant.Know space hazards, including information on the mode of exposure (e.g., inhalation or dermal absorption), signs or symptoms, and consequences of the exposure.Use appropriate personal protective equipment properly (e.g., face and eye protection, and other forms of barrier protection such as gloves, aprons, and coveralls).As necessary, maintain communication (i.e., telephone, radio, visual observation) with attendants to enable the attendant to monitor the entrant's status as well as to alert the entrant to evacuate.Exit from permit space as soon as possible; when ordered by an authorized person, when the entrant recognizes that warning signs or symptoms of exposure exist, when a prohibited condition exists, or when an automatic alarm is activated.Alert the attendant when a prohibited condition exists or when warning signs or symptoms of exposure exist.
14 Entrant responsibilities (continued): Retrieval line and equipment procedures:Must ensure that the other end of the retrieval line is attached to a mechanical device or to a fixed point outside the permit space. A mechanical device must be available to retrieve personnel from vertical type permit spaces more than 5 feet deep.Employees required to wear retrieval devices must wear a chest or full body harness with a retrieval line attached to the center of their back near their shoulder level, or above their heads if the confined space is more than five feet deep.Retrieval lines and non-entry rescue devices are required during vertical entries that are more than 5 feet in depth. The attendant must be trained in the use of non-entry retrieval equipment.
15 Entrant responsibilities (continued): Retrieval line and equipment procedures:Wristlets may be used if the employer can demonstrate that the use of a chest or full body harness is infeasible or creates a greater hazard.If an injured entrant is exposed to a substance for which a Safety Data Sheet (SDS) or other similar written information is required to be kept at the worksite, that SDS or other written information must be made available to the medical facility treating the exposed entrant.
16 Entry Supervisor responsibilities: Fully understand hazardsVerify completion of permit conditionsUnderstand required tests and monitoringEnsure required procedures and equipment in placeEnsure availability of rescueAssure unauthorized persons do not enterSupervisor’s responsibility for a confined space entry.
17 Rescue and emergency personnel responsibilities: Understand hazards of the spaceBe able to respond quickly for rescueTrain for rescue from similar or representative spacesPerform non-entry and entry rescueBe trained in First Aid/CPRCan be contracted or in-houseKey Points:The employer needs to ensure that rescue service personnel are provided with and trained in the proper use of personal protective and rescue equipment, including respirators.They are trained to perform assigned rescue duties.They have had authorized entrant's training.All rescuers must be trained in first aid and CPR and, at a minimum, one rescue team member be currently certified in first aid and in CPR.Practice rescue exercises must be performed yearly, and rescue services must be provided access to permit spaces so that they can practice rescue operations. Rescuers also must be informed of the hazards of the permit space.
18 Employer responsibilities: Before initial work assignment begins, the employer must provide proper training for all workers who are required to work in permit spacesEmployers must ensure that employees have acquired the understanding, knowledge, and skills necessary for the safe performance of their dutiesAdditional training is required when:The job duties changeThere is a change in the permit-space program or the permit space operation presents a new hazardWhen an employee's job performance shows deficienciesIt is imperative that employers ensure all employees are fully and adequately trained. Here are some basics of a training program.
19 Education and training: ResponsibilitiesEducation and training:Training also is required for rescue team members, including cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and first-aid training (see emergencies). Employers must certify that training has been accomplished.Employees must receive a certificate of training that includes the employee's name, signature or initials of trainer(s), and dates of training. The certification must be made available for inspection by employees and their authorized representatives. Employees are to be trained in their assigned duties.
20 Key elements of permit system: A permit, signed by the entry supervisor and verifying that pre-entry preparations have been completed and that the space is safe to enter, must be posted at entrances or otherwise made available to entrants before they enter a permit space.The duration of entry permits must not exceed the time required to complete an assignment.The entry supervisor must terminate entry and cancel permits when an assignment has been completed or when new conditions exist.New conditions must be noted on the canceled permit and used in revising the permit space program. The standard also requires the employer to keep all canceled entry permits for at least 1 year.The Permit system is the backbone of a safe and effective confined space program. It ensures that ONLY authorized, trained, and equipped personnel are entering the space, and that they are fully aware of the hazards. The permit system developed must be comprehensive and enforceable. Each employer will develop their own permit system that works within their normal business operating procedures. Here are some key elements:
21 Key elements of permit system (continued): Space to be enteredPurposeDate, authorized duration of entryName of attendant, entrants, supervisorSignature/initial of supervisorHazards of spaceA confined space cannot be entered until the permit is completed and signed off by an entry supervisor.It is essential that all information is filled in on the confined space permit to help employees ensure that the space has been properly prepared and the workers are ready to enter and perform work.
22 Key elements of permit system (continued): Methods to isolate space and eliminate/control hazardsex. lockout, ventilation, blind lines.Acceptable entry conditionsTest results, time, name/initials of testerRescue servicesCommunication proceduresConfined space permits need to incorporate essential elements like confined space testing and atmospheric testing.
23 Key elements of permit system (continued): Equipment to be providedPPE, test, communication, and rescue equipmentAdditional permits, e.g. hot workMeans to summon rescue servicesOther pertinent information needed to ensure employee safetyAnother pre-entry necessity is to ensure that all other safety equipment, PPE, tools, and supplies are available before work commences.
24 When entry is prohibited the employer must: Permit SystemWhen entry is prohibited the employer must:Take effective measures to prevent unauthorized entry.Non-permit confined spaces must be re-evaluated when there are changes in their use or configuration and, where appropriate, must be reclassified.If testing and inspection data prove that a permit-required confined space no longer poses hazards, that space may be reclassified as a non-permit confined space.During a confined space entry hazards may develop or change following initial entry. Even non-permit spaces must be re-evaluated when there are changes in the use, configuration, or conditions. When appropriate the space needs to be reclassified.
25 When entry is prohibited the employer must (continued): Permit SystemWhen entry is prohibited the employer must (continued):Contractors also must be informed of permit spaces and permit space entry requirements, any identified hazards, the employer's experience with the space (i.e., the knowledge of hazardous conditions), and precautions or procedures to be followed when in or near permit spaces.When employees of more than one employer are conducting entry operations, the affected employers must coordinate entry operations to ensure that affected employees are appropriately protected from permit space hazards. Contractors must also be given other pertinent information regarding hazards and operations in permit spaces and be debriefed at the conclusion of entry operations.When contractors and other vendors need to enter a confined space it is essential that the workers be briefed on the hazards associated with the space. Coordination between entrants is also essential if multiple employers are working in a space during the same entry.
26 Permit System Permit Space Labeling Must be posted at the space entry One of the most essential methods to prevent unauthorized entry into a confined space is to properly label the space and train employees.Companies must inventory and place labels/signs at the confined space entrance to prevent unauthorized entry
27 Atmospheric Monitoring Confined space hazards can be grouped into six categories:Atmospheric hazardsPhysical hazardsEngulfment hazardsCorrosive hazardsBiological hazardsOther hazardsThis section of the course is for Confined Space Entry Supervisors and any other personnel required to assess and monitor confined space atmospheres.To properly assess the hazards in a confined space, environmental hazards as well as physical hazards need to be assessed.
28 Atmospheric Monitoring Confined Space Atmosphere = “The gases, vapors, mists, fumes, and dusts present in the confined space.”Normal composition of air:78% Nitrogen21% Oxygen1% All other gasesCO2ArgonNeonWater vaporMethane, etc.Discussion points:If the atmosphere is < 20.9% oxygen, it has something else there, OR your monitor or its calibration need attentionIf the atmosphere is at 10 % LEL - It is toxic1% of an atmosphere equates to 10,000 ppm of something else…do you know what it is?
29 Atmospheric Monitoring Oxygen deficient atmospheres:#1 Cause of confined space accidentsFlammable atmospheresToxic atmospheresHazardous atmospheres can be inherent to space, caused by outsideinfluence or a result of work conducted within the space.The three main atmospheric hazards in a confined space are oxygen deficiency, flammable atmospheres, and toxic atmospheres.Suffocation causes 65% of fatalities occurring in confined spaces which are a result of hazardous atmospheres.REMEMBER: ATMOSPHERE MAY BE HAZARDOUS BECAUSE OF A PRE-EXISTING CONDITION IN THE SPACE OR IT MAY BECOME HAZARDOUS BECAUSE OF HAZARDS CREATED BY THE WORK.
30 Atmospheric Monitoring Oxygen:Acceptable oxygen levels are 19.5% to 23.5%Displacement by other gases, such as ?<19.5%… air is considered oxygen deficient<20.9%… what is there?!Consumption by chemical reaction, e.g., rusting, combustionConsumption by bacterial actionBoth Oxygen Enriched and Oxygen Deficient atmospheres present hazards to entrants.
31 Atmospheric Monitoring Health effects of oxygen deficiency:20.9% Oxygen content in normal air19.5% Minimum amount of oxygen required for work19.5% - 12% Increases pulse and respiration, impaired judgment, coordination loss.12.0% -10% Disturbed respiration, fatigue, faulty judgment, poor circulation, symptoms within seconds to minutes.10.0% - 6% Nausea, vomiting, inability to move, loss of consciousness anddeath.6% - 0% Convulsions, gasping respiration, cessation of breathing, cardiacarrest, and death within minutes.One of the things that makes oxygen deficiency such a significant hazard is that one of the first things to be affected is your judgment, making it difficult to recognize that something is wrong.
32 Atmospheric Monitoring Flammable gases and vapors:Naturally occurringMethane, natural gas, hydrogen sulfideChemical reactionHydrogenProcess relatedFuels, paints, welding, solvents, etc.Combustible dustSugar, grain, sawdust, etc.Allowable entry conditions: < 10% LELFlammable gases/vapors can be inherent to a space based on the contents or introduced by processes including cleaning, hot work, or application of coatings. LEL – Lower Explosive Limit, also referred to as LFL – Lower Flammability Limit.
33 Atmospheric Monitoring Confined Spaces cannot be entered if the atmosphere is at or above 10% of lower explosive limit.
34 Atmospheric Monitoring Toxic atmospheres:Naturally occurringHydrogen sulfide (H2S)Chemical reactionCarbon monoxideProcess relatedPaints, welding, solvents, chemicalsAllowable entry conditions: < PEL or TLVToxic atmospheres can be related to products that are normally present in a space or introduced by piping or other systems. Work being performed in a space and other operations being conducted during entry can also generate toxics.
35 Atmospheric Monitoring Methane:ColorlessOdorlessNon-toxicAsphyxiate (displaces O2)Lighter than airExplosive range (5% to 15%)Methane can result from the decay of organic material such as leaves.
36 Atmospheric Monitoring Carbon monoxide:ColorlessOdorlessToxicAsphyxiant (displaces O2)Vapor density = to airExplosive range (12.5% to 74.2%)Carbon monoxide is a result of incomplete combustion and can be present from activities being conducted in a confined space or activities outside the confined space such as vehicle exhaust.
37 Atmospheric Monitoring Health effects of carbon dioxide:ColorlessOdorlessNon-combustible gasToxicExposure symptomsHeadacheDizzinessRestlessnessVapor density is 1.53Carbon dioxide can result from exhalation and other common sources such as vehicle and industrial exhaust.
38 Atmospheric Monitoring Hydrogen sulfide (sewer gas):ColorlessSmell like rotten eggsToxicVapor density is 1.89Explosive range (4% to 44%)Common in sewage facilitiesDiminishes your sensitivity to smellHydrogen Sulfide is a toxic gas that is also flammable. It can be found as a result of microbial activity in manholes and other industrial sites.
39 Atmospheric Monitoring All confined spaces require atmospheric monitoring prior to entry:Monitoring needs to be conducted prior to confined space entry and as often as necessary by trained and qualified personnel.Monitoring equipment must be calibrated and maintained according to manufacturer’s instructions.Appropriate control measures are based on atmospheric monitoring.Make sure that you understand how the monitoring equipment works before you enter a space.-Does it have a sample pump?-How long does it take to respond to changes in concentration?-Can you test all elevations (is stratification an issue?)
40 Atmospheric Monitoring Confined space testing needs to be done in the following order:OxygenFlammable gases or vaporsToxic gases or vaporsCode requires that oxygen is tested first then flammable gasses and vapors followed by toxic gases and vapors.Newer multi-gas meters are often capable of testing for all three parameters simultaneously depending the type of toxic that may be present.
41 Atmospheric Monitoring Monitoring needs to consider:Vapor density… where a material would be located (will it rise or collect at the bottom of a space based on its weight vs. air)Work to be doneWhat was in the spaceVapor pressure of materials ability to evaporateLiquids with high vapor evaporate quicklyWhen vapor density is less than 1.0, the vapors can float in air and readily dissipate. When vapor density is greater than 1.0, the vapors are heavier than air and will collect at the lowest point.
42 Atmospheric Monitoring Vapor density:Lighter than airHydrogenMethaneCarbon monoxideAmmoniaPropaneAcetyleneHydrogen sulfideArgonSome gases have a vapor density of less than air while other ones have a vapor density heavier than air. The vapor density of air is considered = 1.Heavier than air
43 Atmospheric Monitoring Oxygen deficient causes:Displacement of air in spaceHot work using the available oxygenProcess equipmentInerting and othersIf atmospheric monitoring indicates that oxygen concentration is something other than 20.9 % we need to consider if other things may have displaced the oxygen that should be there.
44 Atmospheric Monitoring Oxygen deficient causes (continued):Oxygen deficient from inerting:Rendering the atmosphere of a confined space non-combustible or chemically non-reactive.Spaces which have been inerted to prevent a combustible atmosphere are typically oxygen deficient.Inerting a tank takes advantage of removing oxygen to prevent combustion or reaction.
45 Atmospheric Monitoring Oxygen enrichment:Dramatically promotes and accelerates combustion.Never use O2 to ventilate a confined space.> 23% is enriched.Oxygen enrichment can cause an increase in combustion…it can make things burn easier, quicker, and more intensely.
46 Flammable Atmosphere Monitoring Flammability range:The range between the Lower Explosive Level (LEL) is the minimum concentration of a combustible gas or vapor in air which will ignite if a source of ignition is presentUpper Explosive Level (UEL) is the maximum concentration of a combustible gas or vapor in air which will ignite if a source of ignition is presentAtmospheres in this range will burn or explode if an ignition source is presentFlammability takes place when the fuel to air mixture is between the lower explosive limit and the upper explosive limit.
47 Flammable Atmosphere Monitoring Flammability range (continued):LELUELCombustible gas meters give a reading in % of the Lower Explosive Limit.10100Combustible gas concentrations must be below 10% of the LEL for confined space entryPercent LELCombustible Gas/Vapor Reading Instruments read in “Percent LEL”
48 Flammable Atmosphere Monitoring Atmospheric hazards:Gas concentrationAIRCOMBUSTIBLESExplain LEL - Flammable Range - UEL.LEL = Lower Explosive Limit, also called LFL, Lower Flammable LimitLEL/LFL is that concentration of flammable gas or vapor in air that will burn if an ignition source is present. Concentrations below the LEL/LFL are too lean to burn. Concentrations above the UEL/UFL are too rich to burn.Examples of LEL - UELGasoline LEL = 1.4% UEL = 7.6%Acetylene LEL = 2.5% UEL = 85 to 100%Methane LEL = 5% UEL = 15%Explain that <10% LEL/LFL is used for safe entry to provide a margin of safety.Too lean to burnFlammability RangeToo rich to burnLELUEL
49 Flammable Atmosphere Monitoring Different gasses have different flammability ranges:LEL UELAcetone 2.6% %Ammonia 16% %Ethylene oxide 3% 100%Methane 5% 15%Propane 2.2% 9.5%Examples of combustible ranges for common chemicals.
50 Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) Toxic atmospheres are considered unacceptable for entry when concentrations of gases, dusts, mists, or vapors are present in concentrations above the Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL).Exposures above the PEL require control measures to reduce exposures or the use of appropriate Personal Protection Equipment.PEL concentrations are a simple arithmetic average of worker exposure over time TWA’s are usually calculated on an 8 hour exposure basis.Toxic atmospheres are given in relationship to their permissible exposure limit or threshold limit value.
51 Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) Worker’s exposure profile (8 hour TWA)PEAKTWAMost exposure limits are based on a workers exposure to a chemical over an 8 hour shift. However, there are other limits that are based on short term or peak exposure limits.PPM
52 Often invisible to human senses: Toxic HazardsOften invisible to human senses:CO2MethaneCOH2SOdor thresholds do not provide adequate protection for workers.Air monitoring must be performed to determine the level of toxics that are present. Some monitoring is direct reading while other monitoring requires laboratory analysis to get results. Direct reading instrumentation is preferred as it gives real time information while a confined space entry is in progress.
53 Air monitoring permissible levels: Toxic HazardsAir monitoring permissible levels:Air monitoring must be performed to determine the level of toxics that are present. Some monitoring is direct reading while other monitoring requires laboratory analysis to get results. Direct reading instrumentation is preferred as it gives real time information while a confined space entry is in progress.
54 Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health (IDLH): Toxic HazardsImmediately Dangerous to Life or Health (IDLH):Any condition that poses a threat to lifeCause irreversible adverse health effectsInterfere with an individual’s ability to escape unaided from a permit space.Concentrations so high that they present an immediate risk of injury, sickness, or death to an exposed worker.Never enter or work in an IDLH atmosphere.Entry permitted only by emergency rescue, and only if properly equipped!
55 Evaluate condition of space: Entry PreparationEvaluate condition of space:Safe for entryNot safe for entryEntry safe for hot workNot safe for hot workPrepare permit:Space to be enteredPurpose for entryHazards in spaceHazard control measuresTest resultsSpecial equipmentAuthorized entrants and attendantMonitoring is typically performed with a multi-gas meter that simultaneously measures oxygen, flammable atmospheres and many toxic chemicals simultaneously. Meters are typically set with built in alarms; however, safe or acceptable ranges for entry should be clearly understood before a confined space entry is allowed.
56 Entry Preparation Evaluate the space: Determine previous products used in spaceObtain physical and chemical propertiesSelect appropriate instrumentsCalibrate instrumentsTest in the following order:Oxygen, flammability, toxicityTest before ventilation to get accurate assessment of what could be presentTurn ventilation on after testingConduct visual inspectionEvaluate the space before entry and determine what the space had been used for. It may be necessary to drain and or clean it before entry. Review or evaluate any pertinent safety data sheets (SDSs). Ensure that you have the proper monitoring equipment and that it is calibrated and you understand how to use it.Test the space and then initiate ventilation.Ventilate the space and conduct an inspection prior to entry.
57 Evaluate outside the space: Entry PreparationEvaluate outside the space:Prior to entryTest all depthsEntrant observes monitoringMonitoring should be performed either continuously or periodically throughout the confined space entryMonitor during work: is the work creating a hazard?Testing needs to be performed from outside the space prior to entry. Monitoring needs to be repeated periodically or any time conditions in the space could change.
58 Ventilation requirements: Entry PreparationVentilation requirements:Ventilation is required to correct unsafe atmospheres and maintain safe atmospheresCS ventilation is usually supply type (blowing into the confined space)Many confined spaces do not have the potential for hazardous atmospheres after they are open. Thus, ventilation may not be required for limited entry when performing non-hazardous atmosphere producing work (e.g. pump inspection, sample collection…etc.)Ventilation needs to be used if hazardous atmospheres are detected during initial pre-entry testing or if hazardous atmospheres could result from work activities (e.g. welding, painting, solvent use, sludge removal, etc…) When in doubt a space should be ventilated, especially if a sludge or residue will be disturbed that could produce a hazardous atmosphere.Supply ventilation is typically adequate for most confined space work; however, hot work like welding may also require local exhaust ventilation.
59 Entry Preparation Physical hazards: Moving parts Electrical Process hazardsInwardly converging wallsFallsChemical hazardsTemperature extremesHazardous energy that can activate machinery in the spaceEngulfment hazards: liquids or flow able solidsRadiationOtherIf possible all physical hazards should be eliminated before entrance into the confined space.
60 Entry Preparation Engulfment hazards: Preparing space by draining, cleaningIsolating space to prevent material inflowBlind linesDisconnect and misalign lines“Double block and bleed” of valvesIf occupants could become engulfed or entrapped in a space additional steps need to be taken to prepare the space (drain/clean) and potentially isolate the space from system piping by double blocking and bleeding valves.
61 Identify and eliminate hazards if possible: Entry PreparationIdentify and eliminate hazards if possible:Identify spaces and hazardsCommunicate hazards to employeesProvide necessary equipmentEnsure employees are trainedEnsure a permit system and written program are in placeAllow entrants to observe monitoringIdentify the hazards associated with the confined space and eliminate them to the extent possible prior to entry.
63 Entry Preparation Lockout and tagout: Isolate any potential energy source to the space:ElectricityHydraulicSteamDrive mechanismsPneumaticGravity flow of productMust be performed by an authorized employee.*Printed tags and locks are used to warn other employees of isolated energy source.All sources of hazardous energy need to be locked out before employees are allowed to enter the space. Employees designated as “authorized employees” need to follow your company’s lock out tag out program prior to entry.
64 Review all preparations for entry: Entry PreparationReview all preparations for entry:Perform hazard assessment to understand exposures and needed controlsComplete and issue permitHave a preparation safety meeting to review hazards, controls, communications and rescuePerform testing & monitoringPrepare space (draining/cleaning)Prepare isolation (prevent material inflow) and lockout as neededCheck ventilationConsider how and where to ventilate toAssess access and egress safetyConfirm Personal Protective Equipment availablePermit closureReview the confined space permit and hold a meeting prior to entry with all entrants, attendants, and supervisors before entry.
65 If hazardous conditions are detected during entry: Entry PreparationIf hazardous conditions are detected during entry:Employees must immediately leave the spaceEmployer must evaluate the space to determine the cause of the hazardous atmosphereA confined space entry can be canceled at any time if a new hazard is identified or if conditions change once work activities in the space are initiated. If this happens the confined space permit must be canceled and the space needs to be reevaluated for current or potential hazards prior to re-entry.
66 If an emergency occurs: Entry PreparationIf an emergency occurs:Ensure employees know how to use all entry and rescue equipmentCoordinate with rescue servicesEnsure that rescue personnel can respond quickly and are properly trained and equippedIn the event that a confined space emergency occurs entrants should first attempt to self rescue. If this is not possible a non-entry rescue is preferred over an entry rescue. If neither is possible properly trained rescuers should be initiated.
67 In-house rescue services: Must have proper PPEMust be trained and proficientMust be trained as entrants and in rescue procedures and gearMust have basic first aid/CPR trainingMust practice rescues from spacesEnsure that all in-house rescue services are properly equipped and trained.
68 Contracted rescue services: Must respond in a timely manner based on hazardsMust be proficient in rescue tasksMust be evaluated by employerMust be properly equippedMust be informed of hazards/situationsMust have access to review spacesMust be notified when entry occursContracted rescue services must be able to respond in a timely manner based on the hazards. Contractors used to perform confined space rescues should be coordinated and assess the spaces to make sure they are properly equipped.
69 Additional rescue requirements: Rescue ServicesAdditional rescue requirements:Non-entry rescue/retrieval equipment is required unless the equipment would hinder rescue.Full body harness with lifeline connection in back.Wristlets can be used if harness is not feasible.Retrieval line must be attached to a mechanical retrieval device or a fixed point outside the space.Mechanical retrieval is required for spaces more than 5 feet deep.If the confined space to be entered is 5’ or more below vertical grade then a retrieval device is to be worn by entrants unless it would hinder rescue and/or create a hazard.
70 Program Audit Evaluate: Perform: Confined space entry postings and permitsTraining & documentationPre-job tool box vs. minimally required trainingCalibrationsGear usedDocument your auditPerform:In field reviewsInterviews of entrants, standby, supervisors, contractors, area employeesConfined space programs should be audited to verify that permits are being completed correctly, all participants are properly trained, air monitoring equipment is being used and maintained correctly and that documentation is being maintained as required by OSHA standards.
71 Program Audit Contractor reviews: Written program and training documentation review before onsiteInjury data and references, OSHA citation historyCertificates of InsuranceTrainingOnsite reviews & safety observations to assure crew is following requirementsBefore contractors are allowed to enter a confined space they must be trained in the confined space entry procedures used by the company and/or produce documentation of their training and must be informed of the hazards associated with the space.
72 Program Audit Self audit check list: Are confined spaces thoroughly emptied of any corrosive or hazardous substances, such as acids or caustics, before entry?Are all lines to a confined space, containing inert, toxic, flammable, or corrosive materials valved off and blanked or disconnected and separated before entry?Are all impellers, agitators, or other moving parts and equipment inside confined spaces locked-out if they present a hazard?Is either natural or mechanical ventilation provided prior to confined space entry?Are appropriate atmospheric tests performed to check for oxygen deficiency, toxic substances and explosive concentrations in the confined space before entry?Confined space audits are to include verification of the space conditions and hazard controls implemented before the confined space entry.
73 Self audit check list (continued): Program AuditSelf audit check list (continued):Is adequate illumination provided for the work to be performed in the confined space?Is the atmosphere inside the confined space frequently tested or continuously monitored during conduct of work?Is there an assigned safety standby employee outside of the confined space when required, whose sole responsibility is to watch the work in progress, sound an alarm if necessary, and render assistance?Is the standby employee appropriately trained and equipped to handle an emergency?Is the standby employee or are other employees prohibited from entering the confined space without lifelines and respiratory equipment if there is any question as to the cause of an emergency?The audit also needs to include the need for adequate lighting, explosion proof tools (when flammable atmosphere is a concern) and atmospheric monitoring.Are unauthorized entrants prevented from entering the area or the space?
74 Self audit check list (continued): Program AuditSelf audit check list (continued):Is approved respiratory equipment required if the atmosphere inside the confined space cannot be made acceptable?Is all portable electrical equipment used inside confined spaces either grounded and insulated, or equipped with ground fault protection?Before gas welding or burning is started in a confined space, are hoses checked for leaks, compressed gas bottles forbidden inside of the confined space, torches lighted only outside of the confined area and the confined area tested for an explosive atmosphere each time before a lighted torch is to be taken into the confined space?If employees will be using oxygen-consuming equipment, such as salamanders, torches, and furnaces, in a confined space, is sufficient air provided to assure combustion without reducing the oxygen concentration of the atmosphere below 19.5 percent by volume; address CO, etc.?Respirator protection and other PPE needs to be maintained in good condition and entrants need to be appropriately trained.Electrical hazards need to be properly protected insulated, grounded GFCI, explosion resistant for ventilation and lighting may also be necessary depending on the hazards that could be associated with the space.Is a hot work permit completed and is continuous monitoring performed while it is in progress. Leads and hoses should be checked to make sure leaks and shock hazards are eliminated.
75 Self audit check list (continued): Program AuditSelf audit check list (continued):Whenever combustion-type equipment is used in a confined space, are provisions made to ensure the exhaust gases are vented outside of the enclosure?Is each confined space checked for decaying vegetation or animal matter which may produce methane?Is the confined space checked for possible industrial waste which could contain toxic properties?If the confined space is below the ground and near areas where motor vehicles will be operating, is it possible for vehicle exhaust or carbon monoxide to enter the space?Verify ventilation, fresh air being blown into the space and welding fume or other toxics exhausted from the space.Evaluate the space for organics or standing water that could house micro-organisms that could produce hydrogen sulfide or methane gas or other potential toxic or hazardous material.Ensure that the space is protected from vehicle exhaust and other hazards that could be pulled into the space.
76 Rescue team evaluation criteria: Program AuditRescue team evaluation criteria:Adequately trained to perform permit space rescues of the kind needed at the facility.Adequately equipped (all the time).Whether such rescuers can respond in a timely manner; based on events that could occur.Performance evaluations:Measure the performance of the team during practice rescue.Evaluate communication issues, staff, training, staffing levels, gear and its use, response time, retraction time.Teams practice in representative spaces, or in spaces that are "worst-case" or most restrictive with respect to internal configuration, elevation, and portal size.Does the rescue team perform drills and are they familiar with the spaces that are anticipated at this facility?
77 Summary – Confined Space Key points identified in this program:Definition of confined spaceDetermination of when a confined space permit is requiredDefined responsibilities of all personnel involved in a confined space entryKey points needed to obtain a confined space permitThe importance of atmospheric monitoringPotential toxic hazardsThe importance of entry preparationKeeping rescue services alert and trained.Auditing your program
78 Confined Space Entry Documentation Summary This form documents that the training specified above was presented to the listed participants. By signing below, each participant acknowledges receiving this training.Organization:Trainer: Trainer’s Signature:Class Participants:Name: Signature: Date:Documentation SummaryThe Risk Management Center is to be used to document all information including the following:DocumentsRisk Management Center LocationWritten Confined Space Entry TrainingMy ContentTMTraining Documentation including:- Classroom training and training course completed- Sign-in sheets- Quizzes- Skills evaluations- Operator CertificatesTraining TrackTM applicationPre-shift Inspection ChecklistsSafety ObservationsJob Hazard Analysis/ Safety Observation ToolTMNear missesIncident TrackTMAccidents and claimsSupplier and manufacturer Certificates of InsuranceCOI TrackTMSafety Data SheetsSDS TrackTM