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**Chapter 12 Solutions 12.4 Concentrations of Solutions**

Learning Goal Calculate the concentration of a solute in a solution; use concentration units to calculate the amount of solute or solution. © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

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**Concentration of Solution**

The concentration of a solution is the amount of solute dissolved in a specific amount of solution. © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

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**Mass Percent (m/m) Concentration**

Mass percent (m/m) describes the mass (grams) of solute per 100 grams of solution the mass of the solution in grams

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**Mass Percent (m/m) Concentration**

Suppose we prepared a solution by mixing 8.00 g KCl (solute) 42.00 g water (solvent) When water is added to 8.00 g of KCl to form g of KCl solution, the mass percent concentration is 16.0% (m/m).

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**Guide to Calculating Solution Concentration**

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Learning Check A solution is prepared by mixing 15.0 g of Na2CO3 and 235 g of H2O. Calculate the mass percent (m/m) of the solution.

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Solution A solution is prepared by mixing 15.0 g of Na2CO3 and 235 g of H2O. Calculate the mass percent (m/m) of the solution. Step 1 State the given and needed quantities.

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Solution A solution is prepared by mixing 15.0 g of Na2CO3 and 235 g of H2O. Calculate the mass percent (m/m) of the solution. Step 2 Write the concentration expression.

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Solution A solution is prepared by mixing 15.0 g of Na2CO3 and 235 g of H2O. Calculate the mass percent (m/m) of the solution. Step 3 Substitute solute and solution quantities into the expression and calculate.

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**Volume Percent (v/v) Concentration**

Volume percent (v/v) describes the volume of solute in milliliters or liters the volume of the solution in the same units as the solute, milliliters or liters

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**Volume Percent (v/v) Concentration**

A bottle of vanilla extract is 35% (v/v) alcohol. This means the bottle contains 35 mL of ethanol (solute) 100 mL vanilla solution The label indicates that vanilla extract contains 35% (v/v) alcohol.

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Learning Check A bottle contains 78 mL of lemon extract solution. If the solution contains 62 mL of alcohol, what is the volume percent (v/v) of the alcohol in the extract solution? Lemon extract is a mixture of lemon flavor and alcohol.

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Solution A bottle contains 78 mL of lemon extract solution. If the solution contains 62 mL of alcohol, what is the volume percent (v/v) of the alcohol in the extract solution? Step 1 State the given and needed quantities.

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Solution A bottle contains 78 mL of lemon extract solution. If the solution contains 62 mL of alcohol, what is the volume percent (v/v) of the alcohol in the extract solution? Step 2 Write the concentration expression.

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Learning Check A bottle contains 78 mL of lemon extract solution. If the solution contains 62 mL of alcohol, what is the volume percent (v/v) of the alcohol in the extract solution? Step 3 Substitute solute and solution quantities into the expression and calculate.

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**Mass/Volume Percent (m/v) Concentration**

Mass/volume percent (m/v) describes the mass of solute in grams per 100 mL of solution the solute in units of grams and solution volume in milliliters

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**Mass/volume Percent (v/v) Concentration**

Mass/volume percent is widely used in hospitals and pharmacies for preparation of medicines and intravenous solutions. A 5% (m/v) solution of glucose contains 5 g of glucose in exactly 100 mL solution has a combined volume of glucose and water to make 100 mL solution

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**Molarity (M) Concentration**

Molarity is • used when working with solutions • the moles of solute per 1 liter of solution

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**Molarity (M) Concentration**

For example if 1.0 mole of NaCl is dissolved in enough water to make 1.0 liter (L) of solution, the concentration of the solution will be 1.0 M. Molarity, moles per liter, is abbreviated as M.

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Learning Check What is the molarity (M) of 87.7 g of NaCl in L of NaCl solution?

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Solution What is the molarity (M) of 87.7 g of NaCl in L of NaCl solution? Step 1 State the given and needed quantities.

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Solution What is the molarity (M) of 87.7 g of NaCl in L of NaCl solution? Step 1 State the given and needed quantities.

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Solution What is the molarity (M) of 87.7 g of NaCl in L of NaCl solution? Step 2 Write the concentration expression.

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Solution What is the molarity (M) of 87.7 g of NaCl in L of NaCl solution? Step 3 Substitute solute and solution quantities into the expression and calculate.

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**Types of Concentration Expressions**

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**Conversion Factors, Concentration Expressions**

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**Conversion Factors, Concentration Expressions**

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Learning Check The topical antibiotic ointment Neosporin is 3.5% (m/m) neomycin solution. How many grams of neomycin are in a tube containing 64 g of ointment?

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Solution The topical antibiotic ointment Neosporin is 3.5% (m/m) neomycin solution. How many grams of neomycin are in a tube containing 64 g of ointment? Step 1 State the given and needed quantities.

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**Step 2 Write a plan to calculate the mass or volume.**

Solution The topical antibiotic ointment Neosporin is 3.5% (m/m) neomycin solution. How many grams of neomycin are in a tube containing 64 g of ointment? Step 2 Write a plan to calculate the mass or volume. % (m/m) factor grams of ointment grams of neomycin

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Solution The topical antibiotic ointment Neosporin is 3.5% (m/m) neomycin solution. How many grams of neomycin are in a tube containing 64 g of ointment? Step 3 Write equalities and conversion factors.

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Solution The topical antibiotic ointment Neosporin is 3.5% (m/m) neomycin solution. How many grams of neomycin are in a tube containing 64 g of ointment? Step 4 Set up the problem to calculate the mass or volume.

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Learning Check How many grams of KCl are needed to prepare L of a M KCl solution?

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Solution How many grams of KCl are needed to prepare L of a M KCl solution? Step 1 State the given and needed quantities.

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**Step 2 Write a plan to calculate the mass or volume.**

Solution How many grams of KCl are needed to prepare L of a M KCl solution? Step 2 Write a plan to calculate the mass or volume. Molarity Molar mass liters of solution moles of KCl grams of KCl

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Solution How many grams of KCl are needed to prepare L of a M KCl solution? Step 3 Write equalities and conversion factors.

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Solution How many grams of KCl are needed to prepare L of a M KCl solution? Step 4 Set up the problem to calculate the mass or volume.

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