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Geographic Characteristics of Nations

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Presentation on theme: "Geographic Characteristics of Nations"— Presentation transcript:

1 Geographic Characteristics of Nations
Ch. 15: Nations, Borders, & Power

2 Political Region An area that is run by a government Has its own laws.
Has different levels of government A.K.A. political unit

3 Local Government United States Texas Cameron County Brownsville
Rancho Viejo

4 Sovereign Government:
A State that has the power to govern their own internal & external affairs Tax system Laws Political structure Foreign policy

5 State: state: A sovereign political entity.
Ex. United States A territory with that has some sovereignty Not independent Ex. Texas

6 Mini-Quick Write #1 (2 min)
Which kind of State/state has a truly sovereign government and why? Explain your answer. Must write at least 2 sentences

7 NATION: NATION-STATE: A community of people who share a common culture
Has NO physical TERRITORY EX: Kurds (Middle East) A politically independent country Citizens also share a common culture

8 Territory: Land controlled by a government or country
Has a separate government Ex. United States and Puerto Rico

9 Borders, Boundaries, & Buffer Zones:
Boundary = border Line that divides one area from another Can be divided into; Natural boundaries Artificial boundaries A Buffer zone is a neutral territory Meant to prevent conflict tUESDAY Mini -Quick-write #2 :What kind of state or nation would not have borders/boundaries and why? (2 sentences)

10 Natural Boundaries: Occurs when physical features separate countries
Ex. Rivers and Mountains

11 Artificial Boundaries:
Types of Boundaries; 1. GEOMETRIC- Man-made, uses longitude and latitude EX: 49°N Latitude line separates Canada & U.S. 2. ETHNOGRAPHIC/CULTURAL – based on factors like culture and ethnicity *Hard to establish/define* Ex: Conference of Berlin Dividing Africa in 1884

12 Artificial Boundaries:

13 Political Maps: These maps show: Boundaries/borders between countries
Locations of cities and capitals States/provinces and counties End Tuesday

14 Boundary Disputes: Ethnic Conflicts: Religious Conflicts:
Occurs when violent acts are committed between ethnic groups Ethnic cleansing/Genocide EX: Rwanda, Kosovo & Sudan Occurs when there is violence between different religious groups Ex. Conflict between India (Hindu) & Pakistan (Muslim) over Kashmir Wednesday Boundary Disputes:

15 Agenda for April15, 2015 Students will get their binders and take out their spirals to write in Students will finish viewing the Geographic Characteristics of Nations PPT Students will complete the Geographic Characteristics Graphic Organizer (15 min) Students will complete the Borders and Boundaries map (15-20 min)

16 Graphic Organizer/Quickwrite (15 min)
Geographic Characteristics Graphic Organizer Write the appropriate term above the boxes Write a brief description and one example for each term in the boxes Complete the Quickwrite on the back of the organizer Must answer BOTH prompts Must be paragraph Format At least 4 sentences (both prompts altogether) Finish it by the end of the period – will be picked up for a grad

17 Borders and Boundaries Map (15-20 min)
Students must label the10 countries listed below on the map Students must then label the natural boundaries in these countries Mountains, Rivers, Deserts, Oceans, and Seas Make a map legend for the boundaries colors and symbols Answer the short Quickwrite on the back __Countries___ Peru France China Japan United States Mexico Italy India Algeria Canada

18 Example


Breakup of an area into smaller independent units Hostile process EX: Yugoslavia Adding territory to an already existing State Ex: Texas joining the U.S.

21 3 Geographic Characteristics:
Size: how big a country is in comparison to others. Shape: can impact how easily it can be governed, how goods are moved to all areas of the country, & how it relates to neighboring countries Location: a landlocked country is surrounded by other land & has no direct outlet to the sea.

22 SIZE:

23 Small in area & population
Size of Countries: Microstates- Small in area & population Ministates- City-states San Marino Vatican City


25 The 5 Shapes of Countries:
Compact Elongated Fragmented Perforated Prorupted


27 Rwandan Genocide: The 1994 mass murder of an estimated 800,000 people in the small East African nation of Rwanda. Over the course of approximately 100 days Rwanda’s population of seven million was composed of three ethnic groups: Hutu (85%) Tutsi (14%) Twa (1%) The Hutu remembered past years of oppressive Tutsi rule, and many of them not only resented but also feared the minority. End Wednesday

28 Ethnic Cleansing: Expelled rival ethnic groups from:
Serb-controlled areas of Bosnia Herzegovina province of Kosovo Became refugees- People who escape to a foreign country for safety. In the early 1990s, Yugoslavia broke up into 5 separate republics- Ethnic groups began fighting Serbian leaders followed a policy of ethnic cleansing; Expulsion or killing of an ethnic group

29 International Relations & the “Balance of Power”

30 Balance of Power: Policy of a nation or group of nations
Protecting itself against another nation or group of nations By matching its power against the power of the other side States can pursue a policy of balance of power in two ways: Increasing their own power competitive acquisition of territory policy of alliances

31 Factors that Influence how much Power an Individual Nation Possesses:
Size Armed Forces Population Physical Features Educated & United Citizens Economy Factors that Influence how much Power an Individual Nation Possesses:

32 Top 15 Powerful Countries

33 Political Organization of Space:
EMBASSIES- Consulates Ambassadors

34 International Organizations:
United Nations European Union

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