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Atoms, Bonding, and the Periodic Table

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Presentation on theme: "Atoms, Bonding, and the Periodic Table"— Presentation transcript:

1 Atoms, Bonding, and the Periodic Table
Section 1-2 Atoms, Bonding, and the Periodic Table

2 Objectives L Explain how the reactivity of elements is related to valence electrons in atoms. L State what the periodic table tells you about atoms and the properties of elements.

3 Valence Electrons and Bonding
The valence electrons are the ones held at the highest energy level and held the most loosely.

4 Valence Electrons The number of valence electrons in an atom determine many of the properties of that atom and how it will react with other atoms. Objective L.1.2.1

5 Electron Dot Diagram An electron dot diagram includes the chemical symbol for the element and is surrounded by dots that represent valence electrons.

6 Chemical Bonds and Stability
Atoms become stable when their valence electron shells are full. To do this atoms form chemical bonds. A chemical bond is the force of attraction that holds two or more atoms together by the rearrangement of electrons between them.

7 Chemical Bonds and Chemical Reactions
When atoms bond electrons are either transferred from one to another or shared between them. This is a chemical reaction. This results in the formation of a new substance, usually a compound.

8 The Periodic Table

9 Information On Each Element
All Periodic Tables will contain at least the following information about the elements: Atomic Number Atomic Symbol Name of the Element Atomic Mass

10 Some Other Elements

11 What Do These Tell Us?

12 Look On Pages 14 and 15 What are some other informations given on the periodic table on pages 14 and 15. Atomic mass, number, symbol and name. Whether the element is a metal, nonmetal or metalloid. Whether it’s a solid liquid or gas at room temperature. If it’s natural or man made. It’s group and period.

13 Organizing The Elements
Each Element is represented by an Atomic Symbol which is usually represented by 1 or 2 letters. Each element will also have an Atomic Number which is THE NUMBER OF PROTONS IN THAT ELEMENT!!!! Each element will also have an Atomic Mass. This number will often be a decimal but we will simply round it to the nearest whole number for now.

14 Periods And Groups The rows across the periodic table are called periods. As you go across the row from left to right, notice the atomic number increases by one for each element. What does this mean about the number of protons. They also increase by one, why? Because the atomic number IS THE NUMBER OF PROTONS! Because the number of electrons is equal to the number of protons we can say they also increase by one as you move across the row.

15 Periods And Groups Elements in the same column are called a group or family. Each column has a number above it to identify which group of family it belongs to. Each group has similar chemical characteristic shared by all of the elements in that group.

16 How The Periodic Table Works
As the number of protons-the atomic number-increases, the number of electrons also increases. As a result, the chemical properties of the elements change in a regular way across the periods. Objective L

17 How The Periodic Table Works
Each period ends with the valence electron shell full. Each period starts with a higher energy level and one valence electron. Because of this repeating pattern, each element has a corresponding number of electrons in it’s valence shell.

18 Group 1

19 Group 1

20 Group 1 What did you notice about all of the valence shells in Group 1 Atoms? They all have 1 valence electron.

21 Group 2

22 Group 2

23 Group 2 What did you notice about all of the valence shells in Group 2 Atoms? They all have 2 valence electrons.

24 Group 17

25 Group 17

26 Group 17 What did you notice about all of the valence shells in Group 17 Atoms? They all have 7 valence electrons.

27 Group 18

28 Group 18

29 Group 18 What did you notice about all of the valence shells in Group 8 Atoms? They all have 8 valence electrons.

30 Noble Gases The group 18 elements are called Noble Gases. They are called this because they are highly non-reactive with other elements. That means they tend not to chemically bond with other elements. Why do noble gases tend not to bond with other elements? Because their valence shells are full.

31 Reactive Metals and Nonmetals
Group 17 elements are called Halogens. How many electrons do they need to fill up their valence shell? One. These elements would like to gain 1 electron to become stable. The other end (group 1) of the periodic table elements are called Alkali Metals. How many electrons would they like to lose to become stable? One. These elements would like to lose an electron.

32 Sodium and Chlorine

33 Atoms Are Lazy! Atoms will always gain or lose electrons dependent on which is easier (requiring less energy). If a valence shell needs 8 electrons to be stable what will the atom do if it has 2? What is easier, gaining 6 or losing 2? Losing 2. What if an atom has 7? Should it lose 7 or gain 1? Gain 1.

34 Other Metals The elements in the middle part of the periodic table are the transition metals. How reactive they are depends on how easily they lose electrons. Some metals like iron, manganese, and copper are reactive, especially with oxygen while others like gold and platinum are nonreactive.

35 Other Nonmetals Nonmetals gain electrons to become stable. Where do they get the electrons from? Metals Nonmetals can bond with other nonmetals but if neither element is willing to give any electrons is there another option for them? They can share electrons

36 What Divides The Metals From Nonmetals

37 Metalloids Metalloids border the zig zag line separating the metals from nonmetals. They can have properties of either metals or nonmetals depending on conditions.

38 Hydrogen Even though hydrogen is located on the metals side of the periodic table it is definitely a nonmetal. It’s located over group 1 because it has one valence electron.

39 Sec. 1-2 Assessment 1a. What are valence electrons?
Valence electrons are the ones with the highest energy level, are held the most loosely and are responsible for bonding between atoms. 1b. What role do valence electrons play in chemical bonding? Valence electrons determine how atoms will bond and with what. They can be transferred or shared. 1c. Do oxygen atoms become more or less stable when they form compounds?

40 Sec. 1-2 Assessment When oxygen forms compounds it either gains or shares electrons to fill up the valence shell and become stable. 2a. Using the words period and group, summarize the periodic table. The rows are called periods and atomic numbers increase by one as you move from left to right. Columns are called groups and elements in a group have the same number of valence electrons which gives them similar chemical properties.

41 Sec. 1-2 Assessment 2b. Why do the properties of elements change in a regular way across the periods? (Rows) Because the number of valence electrons change is a repeating pattern. 2c. How reactive are elements in group 18 (Noble Gases) and how can you explain this in terms of valence electrons? They are not reactive because their valence shells are already full and therefore stable.

42 How Are We Doing?

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