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Chapter 9 Section 2 Industrialization Case Study: Manchester

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1 Chapter 9 Section 2 Industrialization Case Study: Manchester
Objective: Analyze the impact of industrialization on society Vocabulary: Urbanization & Middle Class

2 Setting the Stage Industrialization led to a better quality of life for most people Rapid industrialization brought plentiful jobs, but it also caused unhealthy working conditions, air & water pollution, & the ills of child labor It also led to class tensions, especially between the working class & the middle class

3 Industrialization Changes Life
By the 1800s, people could earn higher wages in factories than on farms People wore better clothing, woven on power looms in England’s industrial cities Cities swelled with waves of job seekers

4 Industrial Cities Rise
The number of European cities boasting more than 100,000 inhabitants rose from 22 to 47 Urbanization: growth of cities & the migration of people into them Factories developed in clusters because they were built near sources of energy London had a population of about one million & was Europe’s largest city

5 Living Conditions England had no development plans, sanitary codes, or building codes England lacked adequate housing, education, & police protection for the people who poured in from the countryside to seek jobs Workers lived in dark, dirty shelters, with whole families crowding in one bedroom Average life span was 17 for working-class citizens living in the city

6 Working Conditions Factory owners wanted to keep their machines running as many hours as possible The average worker spent 14 hours a day at the job, 6 days a week Factories were seldom lit or clean There was no government program to provide aid in case of injury Women & children were employed in the mining industry because they were the cheapest source of labor

7 Class Tensions Grow The Industrial Revolution created enormous amounts of wealth in the nation Most of this wealth belonged to factory owners, shippers, & merchants Middle Class: social class made up of skilled workers, professionals, businesspeople, & wealthy farmers

8 The Middle Class The new middle class transformed the social structure of Great Britain The upper middle class consisted of government employees, doctors, lawyers, & managers The lower middle class included factory overseers & skilled workers

9 The Working Class The working class, saw little improvement in their living & working conditions Some people tried to destroy the machines they felt were putting them out of work The Luddites attacked whole factories by destroying laborsaving machinery Mobs of workers rioted, mainly because of poor living & working conditions

10 Positive Effects of the Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution created jobs & contributed to the wealth of the nation It also produced healthier diets, better housing, & cheaper clothing For the working class, it took longer, but their lives gradually improve

11 Long-Term Effects Living & working conditions improved over those workers in the 19th century Profits derived from industrialization produced tax revenues Profits have allowed local, state, & federal governments to invest in urban improvements & raised the standard of living

12 The Mills of Manchester
Manchester’s rapid, unplanned growth made it an unhealthy place for the poor people who lived & worked there However, wealth flowed from its factories Eventually the working class saw their standard of living improve Children were beaten to stay awake & used on the most dangerous machine due to their tiny hands Factory Act of 1819, finally put restrictions on working age & hours

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