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Teacher’s notes included in the Notes Page. Flash activity. These activities are not editable. Useful websites for further information. Icons key: For.

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Presentation on theme: "Teacher’s notes included in the Notes Page. Flash activity. These activities are not editable. Useful websites for further information. Icons key: For."— Presentation transcript:

1 Teacher’s notes included in the Notes Page. Flash activity. These activities are not editable. Useful websites for further information. Icons key: For more detailed instructions, see the Getting Started presentation. Accompanying worksheet. © Boardworks Ltd 20091 of 25 Food Types and Properties Food Technology

2 © Boardworks Ltd 20092 of 25 Learning objectives By the end of this unit, you will: Be able to identify the different functions of certain ingredients. Assess the appropriateness of different ingredients in different recipes. Develop new recipes from different ingredients. The key concepts covered are: Designing and making Critical evaluation.

3 © Boardworks Ltd 20093 of 25 Making a cake

4 © Boardworks Ltd 20094 of 25 Making a cake

5 © Boardworks Ltd 20095 of 25 Victoria sponge maker

6 © Boardworks Ltd 20096 of 25 Ingredients in recipes have a particular function. These might be: physical – affects the structure of the food – the flour in the cake sets the foam and holds the cake together sensory – gives colour, flavour or texture – the sugar in the cake makes it taste sweet nutritional – added for its food value, e.g. eggs are a source of protein. An ingredient may have different functions when used in different recipes. Function of ingredients

7 © Boardworks Ltd 20097 of 25 Function of carbohydrates

8 © Boardworks Ltd 20098 of 25 Function of carbohydrates

9 © Boardworks Ltd 20099 of 25 In coagulation, the heat makes the proteins in the egg uncoil and forms a solid structure. Raw eggs are runny, but when they are cooked the white changes colour and becomes solid. This is called coagulation. Sauces can be thickened using eggs, e.g. hollandaise sauce. Custards can also be thickened or set e.g. a custard tart. Eggs can also form a glue to bind ingredients, e.g. burgers. Function of protein – coagulation

10 © Boardworks Ltd 200910 of 25 Uses of coagulation

11 © Boardworks Ltd 200911 of 25 Kneading dough untangles the protein strands and develops the gluten. The gluten is strong and elastic, and holds the bread together. Gluten traps the gases that form in bread when you cook it. Strong flour has more gluten, and so is better for making bread than ordinary flour. Gluten is made when proteins from wheat flour are mixed with water. It is important when making bread. Gluten

12 © Boardworks Ltd 200912 of 25 Gelatine is a protein that can be used to set foods. It is extracted from the connective tissue in meat. When you make a jelly, you mix gelatine with warm water, which makes the protein chains unfold. As the jelly cools, the proteins form a network and the jelly sets. What do you think will happen if you heat the jelly up again? Gelatine

13 © Boardworks Ltd 200913 of 25 Function of fats

14 © Boardworks Ltd 200914 of 25 Function of fats

15 © Boardworks Ltd 200915 of 25 Oils and water don’t usually mix. If you mix them up, they separate out again. If you want to keep the oil and water mixed, you have to add an emulsifying agent. Mayonnaise is a mixture of oil and vinegar. Egg yolk is added to make the mixture into an emulsion and stop it separating. Margarine is also a water in oil substance which has emulsifiers to hold it in a solid shape. Other emulsifiers include honey and mustard. Where might these act as an emulsifier? Emulsions

16 © Boardworks Ltd 200916 of 25 Additives are substances that are added to food when it is processed. Some are natural, others are man-made. Processed foods may include: colourings to make the food more apetising, or like another food product preservatives to make the food keep longer flavourings to make the food taste better thickeners and anti-caking agents to affect the texture. New additives have to be checked for safety before they can be used. Food additives

17 © Boardworks Ltd 200917 of 25 E numbers

18 © Boardworks Ltd 200918 of 25 Herbs and spices are not usually added to food for their nutrition value, but because they make it taste and smell nice. Herbs can be bought fresh for instant flavour. Parsley, mint and coriander can be bought while they are still growing, so that they can be cut only when they are needed. They are good for salads, marinades and foods cooked for a short amount of time. What is this herb? What recipes can it be used in? Herbs and spices

19 © Boardworks Ltd 200919 of 25 Herbs and spices They are good for foods with a long cooking time, like stews and currys. Dried herbs and spices have a more intense flavour, so you don’t need to use as much of them. Their fragrances can dramatically alter the taste of food, e.g. cloves and cardamom pods are used to make pilau rice. Herbs and spices may have to travel long distances so they are often dried to make them easier and cheaper to transport.

20 © Boardworks Ltd 200920 of 25 Spice rack

21 © Boardworks Ltd 200921 of 25 Match them up

22 © Boardworks Ltd 200922 of 25 Summary

23 © Boardworks Ltd 200923 of 25 Food Types and Properties

24 © Boardworks Ltd 200924 of 25 Recipe bank

25 © Boardworks Ltd 200925 of 25 Starches add bulk to food, and can be used as thickeners. Sugar adds sweetness, colour and flavouring and can be caramelized. Fat traps air when it is beaten with sugar. It also shortens foods to give a crumbly texture and makes mixtures feel moist when eaten. Proteins trap air when they are whisked into a foam. The protein in egg white coagulates and sets when heated. Gluten is a protein found in wheat and is important when making bread. Food Types and Properties


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