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Diseases of pleura Beatrix Bálint MD..

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Presentation on theme: "Diseases of pleura Beatrix Bálint MD.."— Presentation transcript:

1 Diseases of pleura Beatrix Bálint MD.

2 Pleural cavity

3 Pleura Apex Lat. mellkasfal Mediastinum diafragma

4 Diseases of pleura Inflammation = pleurisy Pneumothorax Tumor

5 Inflammation of pleura
1. Pleuritis sicca Cause: viral infection Bornholm’s disease Coxsackie B Symptomes: Pleuritic chest pain Pleural friction rub Therapy: symptomatical

6 2. Pleural effusion:aetiology:multifactorial
Symptomes Chest pain Dyspnoe Physical examination Percussion note: dull Auscultation: diminished/absent breath sounds X-ray Small fluid: blunting of costo-phrenic angleű Larger volume (>300 ml):homogenous shadow Therapy Thoracocentesis To treat the cause of the pelural effusion

7 Pleurisy

8 Pleural effusion Definition: An accumulation of fluid between the layers of the membrane lining the lung and the chest cavity. Alternative names: Fluid in the chest; Transudative pleural effusion; Exudative pleural effusion Causes: Pleural fluid is normally formed in small amounts to lubricate the surfaces of the "pleura," the thin membrane that lines the chest cavity and surrounds the lungs. A "pleural effusion" is an abnormal collection of this fluid.

9 Pleural effusion

10 Pleural effusion

11 Pleural effusion

12 Pulmonary embolism

13 Pathophysiology of pleural effusion
 of pulm. capill. wedge pressure: cong. heart failure  onc. pressure in microvas. circulation: low Se albumin  in pressure in the pelural space: lung collapse due to ptx  permeability of microvasc. circ.:due to inflam. mediators Impaired lymphatic drainage from pl. space: due to tu / fibrosis Occlusion of pariet. pleura stomata with fibrin, debris and mesoth. swellings: due to pneumonia Movement of fluid from peritoneal space through diaphr. lymph. / diaphr. defect

14 Thoracocentesis Definition: A procedure to remove fluid from the space between the lungs and the wall of the chest. How to prepare for the test: No special preparation is needed before the procedure. A chest X-ray is may be performed before and after the test. Do not cough, breathe deeply, or move during the test to avoid injury to the lung. Risks: pneumothorax (collapse of the lung), fluid re-accumulation, pulmonary edema, bleeding,infection, and respiratory distress.

15 Pleural effusion: analysis
Quantity Quality: color, density, opacity Lab. analysis Chemical Cytological Bacteriological: culture Spec Aspec.

16 Lab. analysis of pleural effussion
Exsudate Transudate 3 %  protein 3 %  + Rivalta - 0.5  Protein in pl. eff./ Se protein 0.5  0.6  LDH in pl.eff/Se LDH 0.6  1014  Specific gravity 1014  inflammation Cause  syst./pulm. venous pressure

17 Common Causes of Exudative Effusion
Tuberculosis Unilateral Lung cc Bloody, large, parenchymal lesion on the X-ray, rapid. Reprod. Pneumonia X-ray:infiltr. Pulm. Infarction Bloody, pleural pain Lymphoma E.g.:Hodgkin disease, +mediast. Lg. Metastatic tumor Large, rapid. Reprod. Mesothelioma Bloody, Large, rapid. Reprod. Trauma Bloody

18 Common Causes of Transudative Effusion
Congestive heart failure Bilateral Cirrhosis Ascites, Se protein low, usually on the right side Nephrotic syndrome Hypoproteinaemia, Generalized oedema, ascites

19 3.Empyema = pus in the pleural space
Cause:bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pn, E. Coli, Mycobact. Tb, anaerobic bact. Appear: as the complication of bacterial pneumonia, subdiaphragmatic abscess, oesophageal perforation, following thoracic surgery Symptomes: Chest pain Dyspnoe Fever Night sweats Weight loss

20 Empyema 2. Physical examination: Signs of pleural fluid
Percussion note: dull Auscultation: diminished/absent breath sounds X-ray: Signs of pleural fluid Therapy Drainage of pleural space Antibiotics In the case of uneffective th: thoracotomy, pleural peel

21 II. Pneumothorax= air in the pleural space complete or partial
II. Pneumothorax= air in the pleural space complete or partial collapse of the lung Symptomes: Chest pain Dyspnoe Physical sign Percussion note:Hyperresonance Breath sounds: diminished/absent X-ray: visible pleural edge with no lung markings between this edge and the chest wall Therapy: depends on the size of the ptx small: O2 th, close observation, suction of the air by needle large:consant tube drainage pleurodesis surgery

22 Potential causes of pneumothorax
Air: outside the chest wall Trauma Thoracocentesis, pleural biopsy, TTB Insertion of venous catheter Air: from the airways Idiopathic Rupture of oesophagus COPD Pos.pressure ventillation Infection, tumor, foreign body

23 Pneumothorax

24 Pneumothorax

25 Pneumothorax

26 Tension PTX A tension PTX is a life-threatening condition that requires immediate intervention. Causes: penetrating chest injuries, fractures of the trachea or bronchi, a ruptured esophagus, the presence of an occlusive dressing over an open PTX, and PPV. Progressive build-up of pressure in the pleural space pushes the mediastinum to the opposite hemithorax, and obstructs venous return to the heart. This leads to circulatory instability and may result in traumatic arrest.  Symptomes: patient is tachycardic and tachypnoeic, and may be hypoxic. These signs are followed by circulatory collapse with hypotension and subsequent traumatic arrest with pulseless electrical activity (PEA). Breath sounds and percussion note may be very difficult to appreciate and misleading in the trauma room. Mrtg: Deviation of the trachea away from the side of the tension. Shift of the mediastinum. Depression of the hemi-diaphragm. Th:emergent chest decompression with needle thoracostomy. A 14-16G intravenous cannula is inserted into the second rib space in the mid-clavicular line. The needle is advanced until air can be aspirated into a syringe connected to the needle. Constant tube drainage

27 Tension PTX

28 III. Pleural tumors 1. Primery tumor = mesothelioma
Localised form: solitary growth on pleural surface Th: surgical resection Diffuse mesorhelioma:highly malignant tu. Symptomes: chest pain, cough, dyspnoe X-ray: rapidly reproducated peural effusion Dg: cytological examination of the effusion Th: symptomatical 2. Metastatic tumor: malignant pleural effusion caused by primery tumor of the body: breast cc., lung cc.

29 Köszönöm a figyelmet!

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