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Infant Reflexes Lecture 4.

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Presentation on theme: "Infant Reflexes Lecture 4."— Presentation transcript:

1 Infant Reflexes Lecture 4

2 Objectives • Explain the infant reflexes and their importance.
• Pinpoint and explain the number of infant reflexes. • Describe the primitive reflexes. • Describe the postural reflexes.

3 What are Infant Reflexes?
A reflex is an involuntary muscle reaction to a certain type of stimulation. Occur subcortically (below the level of the higher brain centers) Newborns’ reflexes to evaluate neurological function and development


5 Infant vs. Lifespan Reflexes
Most “infant” reflexes do not last beyond the first year. Infant reflexes may not completely disappear. May be inhibited by maturing CNS. May be integrated into new movements. Reflexes that are called “lifespan” reflexes.

6 Role of the Reflexes in Survival
Human infants essentially helpless. Highly dependent on their caretakers and reflexes for protection and survival. Primitive reflexes occur during gestation or at birth and most are repressed by 6 months of age. Primitive reflexes are important for protection, nutrition, and survival.

7 Role of Reflexes in Developing Future Movement
Postural reflexes are related to the development of later voluntary movement. Reflexes integrated, modified, and incorporated into more complex patterns to form voluntary movements.

8 Role of Reflexes in Developing Future Movement
Infant Reflex Future Voluntary Movement Palmar grasp Grasping Stepping Walking

9 Reflexes as Diagnostic Tools
Concern Moro reflex May signify cerebral birth injury if lacking or asymmetric. symmetric tonic reflex May indicate cerebral palsy or other neurological problem if persists past normal time.

10 Examples of Primitive Reflexes
Palmar Grasp Sucking Rooting Moro Startle Symmetric Tonic Neck Plantar Grasp Babinski

11 Palmar Grasp Stimulus / Response
S: Touching palms R: 4 fingers (not thumb) close Disappearance 3- 4 months postpartum Concerns No palmer grasp may indicate neurological problems

12 Sucking Stimulus / Response S: touch of lips R: sucking action
Disappearance 3 months postpartum Concerns No reflex problematic for nutrition

13 Rooting Stimulus / Response
S: touching the cheek R: head moves toward stimuli Disappearance 4 to 6 months postpartum Concerns No reflex problematic for nutrition No reflex or lack of persistence may be sign of CNS.

14 Moro Stimulus / Response
S: Suddenly but gently lower baby’s head R: Arms and legs extend Disappearance 3-6 months postpartum Concerns May signify CNS dysfunction May indicate injury to one side of brain

15 Moro

16 Startle Stimulus / Response S: sudden loud noise R: Arms and legs flex
Disappearance 4 months

17 Tonic Neck Stimulus / Response
S: turn head to one side R: Limbs flex on one side, extend on other side Disappearance 3- 4 months Concerns Facilitates bilateral body awareness Facilitates hand-eye coordination

18 Plantar Grasp Stimulus / Response
S: Touching the ball of foot R: Toes grasp Disappearance 3-4 month Other Must disappear before the baby can stand or walk.

19 Babinski Stimulus / Response S: Stroking outer sole of upward
R: toes to hyper extended Duration 12 months

20 Postural Reflexes Stepping Crawling Swimming Head and Body Righting
Pull Up

21 Stepping Stimulus / Response
S: Infant upright with feet touching surface R: Legs lift and descend Disappearance 1 – 2 moths Other Sometimes called walking reflex Developmental changes in reflex over time

22 Crawling Stimulus / Response S: place on abdomen
R: Legs and arms move in crawling action Duration 2 months

23 Pull Up Stimulus / Response
S: Sitting/standing, hold hands, tip in one direction R: Arms flex or extend in to maintain upright position Duration 3 months – 1 year

24 Eyes reflex Blinking or corneal reflex Infant blinks at sudden appearance of a bright light or at approach of an object toward cornea, persists throughout life Papillary: Pupil constricts when a bright light shines toward it, persists throughout the life. Dolls eye: As head is moved slowly to right or left, eyes lag behind and do not immediately adjust to new position of head, disappears as fixation develops, if persists, indicate neurological damage.

25 Nose: Sneeze: spontaneous response of nasal passages to irritation or obstruction persists throughout life. Glabellar: tapping briskly on glabella (bridge of nose) causes eyes to close tightly

26 Mouth & throat: Gag: stimulation of posterior pharynx by food, suction, or passage of a tube causes eyes to close tightly.

27 Mouth & throat Yawn: spontaneous response to decreased oxygen by increasing amount of inspired air persists throughout life. Cough: irritation of mucous membranes of larynx or tracheobronchial tree causes coughing persists throughout life, usually present after first day of birth.

28 Video Clips of Infant Reflexes

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