2 Keeping track of the U.S. Economy: Economists monitor important macroeconomic data using National Income Accounting.A system that collects statistics on production, income, investment, and savings.The data are compiled and presented in the form of National Income and Product Accounts (NIPA), which are maintained by the U.S. Department of Commerce.NIPA data are used to determine economic policies.The most important of the measures in NIPA is GDP.
3 What is GDP? GDP: Gross Domestic Product The dollar value of all final goods and services produced within a country’s borders in a given year.Dollar Value:Is the total of the selling prices of all goods and services produced in a country in one calendar year.Final goods and services:Are products in the form sold to consumersIntermediate goods: used in the production of final goods.Produced within a country’s borders:Important to remember.video-series/episode-7-gross-domestic-product
4 How to Calculate GDP: There are two ways: Expenditure ApproachIncome ApproachExpenditure Approach: sometimes called the output-expenditure approach.How it works:Economists estimate the annual expenditures, or amounts spent, on four categories of final goods and services:1. Consumer Goods and ServicesDurable and Nondurable Goods2. Business Goods and Services3. Government Goods and Services4. Net Exports or Imports of Goods and ServicesThen, economists add together the amounts spent on all four categories to arrive at the total expenditures on goods and services produced during the year. This total equals GDP.
5 How to Calculate GDP: There are two different ways: Income Approach: Expenditure ApproachA practical way to measure GDPIncome ApproachThe more accurate approach.Income Approach:Calculates GDP by adding up all the incomes in the economy.The Circular Flow Model helps visualize both approaches.
7 Nominal vs. Real GDP: Nominal GDP: Real GDP: GDP measured in current prices.Sometimes called “current GDP”Real GDP:GDP expressed in constant, or unchanging prices.This helps to correct for distortion that can occur when using nominal GDP.If prices rise from year to year it can make it look like GDP is increasing, when that’s not the case.An example of how this works is on the top of page 304 in the book.
8 Limitations of GDP: 1. Nonmarket Activities: GDP does not measure goods and services that people make or do themselves.2. The Underground Economy:A large amount of production and income is never recorded to the government.Black Markets, “Under the Table” wages, and legal informal transactions.3. Negative Externalities:Unintended economic side effects, have a monetary value that often is not reflected in GDP.
9 Limitations of GDP: 4. Quality of Life: Although GDP can be used as a sign of rising well-being, it does not take into account whether or not this makes people happier.All of these limitations suggest that GDP is a poor measure of people’ well-being and a somewhat flawed measure of output and income.While it’s not perfect, when calculated consistently over time it helps reveal economic growth rates.
10 Other Income and Output Measures: NIPA provides numerous measurements of the economy’s performance.While GDP is the primary measure of income and output, sometimes other measures are more useful.Many of these are derived from GDP.GNP: Gross National ProductThe annual income earned by U.S.-owned firms and U.S. residents.GNP is a measure of the market value of all goods and services produced by Americans (or citizens of a country) in one year.GNP does not account for depreciationThe loss of the value of capital equipment that results from normal wear and tear.GNP minus depreciation is called Net National Product NNP.
11 Other Income and Output Measures: NNP: is a measure of the net output for one year, after the adjustment for depreciation.NNP does not reflect another cost of doing business: taxes.After subtracting sales and excise taxes and making adjustments you get national income NI.from this measurement we can find out how much pretax income businesses actually pay to households after reinvesting some of their income and paying additional taxes.That amount is called personal income, PI.Finally we want to know how much people actually have to spend after they pay their taxes, which is called disposable personal income, DPI.