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Chapter 26 Section 1 I. The Rise of Dictators.

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1 Chapter 26 Section 1 I. The Rise of Dictators

2 Adolf Hitler and other leaders rose to power by the 1930’s and became dictators, controlling their nations by force. They promised: 1.a better life 2.a glorious future.

3 Many Europeans had been angered by the terms of the WWI Treaty of Versailles and frustrated by a worldwide depression. This anger and frustration made the dictators seem like good alternatives to past governments.

4 ITALY Benito Mussolini and the Fascist Party rose to power in Italy. In 1922 they gained enough strength to force the king of Italy to declare Mussolini the head of the government.

5 Mussolini built up the military and wanted to recapture the glorious times of the Romans.

6 Mussolini did this by: 1. Banning all political parties except the Fascist Party. Mussolini would be known as II Duce or “The Leader.”

7 2. Democratic rule would end
2. Democratic rule would end. Civil liberties and the free press ceased to exist. Children were enrolled in military organizations that taught them loyalty to the new government.

8 3. In 1935 Italian forces invaded and took over Ethiopia.

9 The Ethiopian emperor Haile Selassie appealed to the League of Nations for help. The League banned trade in weapons and some other goods to Italy, but was not strong enough to enforce the ban.

10 Italy withdrew from the League of Nations and in 1939 annexed Albania, its neighbor.

11 GERMANY Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party rose to power in Germany. Germans rallied around Hitler, who gained popularity by exploiting German concerns over items such as: 1. too high inflation 2. unemployment

12 Frustration over terms of treaty of versailles.
Germany was upset because of 1. lose of territory 2. having to make huge payments to the Allies for damages caused during WWI. As a result, Germans rallied behind Hitler.

13 Hitler in 1921 became chairman of the nazi party
Hitler in 1921 became chairman of the nazi party. National socialist german worker’s party Party members believed Germans were superior to all others. The Nazi Party was extremely racist.

14 The Nazi Party blamed the Jewish people for Germany’s problems.
The Nazis’ anti-Semitism, a hatred of Jews, lead them to discriminate against and persecute Jews.

15 In 1933 Hitler became the chief minister or chancellor, of Germany.
At this time the Democratic rule ended and a totalitarian government was formed. A totalitarian government is: * when there is a single party in control * all opposing views to the government is suppressed * peoples’ lives are controlled

16 Ignoring the Treaty of Versailles, Hitler acted by
Building up the German military Declared Germany had the right to expand its territory An alliance was formed with Italy in 1936.

17 Japan Like other foreign countries, Japan experienced its own economic depression during the 1930’s. As a result, military leaders rose to power believing that by expanding Japanese power into Asia, their economic problems would be solved.

18 The first attack by Japan was the invasion of Manchuria in northeastern China in This action by Japan was not recognized by the League of Nations. Even though it condemned this aggression, the League did not stop the Japanese. Japan continued its influence by setting up a government in Manchuria.

19 In Japan continued to invade China, first to the north and then to the south until all of China was occupied by Japan.

20 Finally in 1940, Japan signed an alliance pact with Germany and Italy
Finally in 1940, Japan signed an alliance pact with Germany and Italy. This group of countries became known as the Axis Powers.

21 Soviet Union In the late 1920’s, the Communist leader, Joseph Stalin, took over command of the Soviet Union. He used force to demand complete obedience from the people of the Soviet Union.

22 Stalin’s plan for complete control was to:
Execute any opponents and anyone who supported them. Send millions of Russians to labor camps. Reorganize the economy by forcing Russians to work on government-owned farms.

23 As all this is happening in Europe and Asia, most Americans wanted to stay out of any international crises and conflicts. Between 1935 and 1937 the U.S. Congress passed a series of Neutrality Acts. These acts banned the sale of weapons to nations at war. Trade was only allowed with countries that could pay cash and transport goods in their own ships. Since most debts from WWI were still unpaid, the U.S. wanted to prevent any more debt owed to us.

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