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1 Presentation By : Mostafa Ahmed Hathout ENERGY SOURCEPresentation By : Mostafa Ahmed Hathout4-4 Primary, IDEL School 2013/2014
2 Energy is essential. It is embodied in everything we use Energy is essential. It is embodied in everything we use. To compare sources of energy effectively, we need to understand what it is and how it works.What is Energy?It comes from many sources and in many forms. The forms of energy are classified in two general categories: potential and kinetic.Potential energy is energy stored in an object. Chemical, mechanical, nuclear, gravitational, and electrical are all stored energy. Kinetic energy does the work. Light, heat, motion, and sound are examples of kinetic energy.
3 Here’s a simple example Here’s a simple example. Stretching a rubber band gives it the potential to fly. The tension created from the stretching is potential mechanical energy. When the rubber band is released, it flies through the air using motion (kinetic energy). The process of changing energy from one form into another is called energy transformation. The rubber band is transformed from potential energy into kinetic energy.Systems convert energy at various rates of efficiency. Water turbines, for example, are very efficient, while combustion engines are not. Engineers and physicists constantly work to develop systems with high energy-conversion efficiencyWhich Energy Source is Best?It depends. Many alternative sources of energy are still being researched and tested. Technologies are continually being developed and enhanced to improve energy sources. Not all energies are ready for mass consumption, so you have to ask the right questions to find out which energy source does the job.
4 What are the Sources of Energy? Primary energy sources (meaning energy is created directly from the actual resource) can be classified in two groups: nonrenewable or renewable. Secondary sources are derived from primary sources.Non-Renewable Energy Sources – Energy from the ground that has limited supplies, either in the form of gas, liquid or solid, are called nonrenewable resources. They cannot be replenished, or made again, in a short period of time. Examples include: oil (petroleum), natural gas, coal and uranium (nuclear). Oil, natural gas and coal are called “fossil fuels” because they have been formed from the organic remains of prehistoric plants and animals.
5 Renewable Energy Sources – Energy that comes from a source that’s constantly renewed, such as the sun and wind, can be replenished naturally in a short period of time. Because of this we do not have to worry about them running out. Examples include: solar, wind, biomass and hydropower. Currently, less than 2% of the world’s electricity comes from renewable resources. There is a global debate as to whether geothermal energy is renewable or nonrenewable.Secondary Energy Sources – Energy that is converted from primary sources are secondary sources of energy. Secondary sources of energy are used to store, move, and deliver energy in an easily usable form. Examples include electricity and hydrogen.
6 These are modes of energy production, energy storage, or energy conservation, listed alphabetically. Note that not all sources are accepted as legitimate or have been proven to be tappableMost of the Earth's energy comes from the Sun Solar PanelsSolar power, that's obvious, but the energy in coal originally came from the Sun too.Prehistoric plants stored the Sun's energy in their leaves, and when they died and eventually formed coal seams, that energy was still there.So when we burn coal (or any fossil fuel), we're releasing chemical energy that was stored in plants millions of years ago.The same goes for Wind and Wave power. Waves occur because of winds, and winds blow because the Sun warms our atmosphere. Warm air tends to rise, and winds are due to other air moving in to replace it.
7 Most power stations burn coal, oil or natural gas to run the generators. Others use uranium, or the flow of water. Electricity is sent around the country using high-voltage power lines. Nearly all of the power we use comes from large power stations, although some places such as isolated farms, or hospitals, have their own diesel generators.The world needs all the energy we can develop, in every potential form. While finding new ways to maximize the use of traditional resources such as oil and natural gas, we also depend on technology to produce emerging sources of energy.
8 types of Energy Sources: Energy sources are of two types: nonrenewable and renewable. Energy sources are considered nonrenewable if they cannot be replenished (made again) in a short period of time. On the other hand, renewable energy sources such as solar and wind can be replenished naturallyRenewable energy sources including biomass, hydropower, geothermal, wind, and solar provide 9% of the energy used in the United States. Most renewable energy goes to producing electricityRenewable BasicsRenewable energy sources can be replenished.
9 What role does renewable energy play in the United States? The use of renewable energy is not new. More than 150 years ago, wood, which is one form of biomass, supplied up to 90% of our energy needs. As the use of coal, petroleum, and natural gas expanded, the United States became less reliant on wood as an energy source. Today, we are looking again at renewable sources to find new ways to use them to help meet our energy needs.Over half of renewable energy goes to producing electricity. The next largest use of renewable energy is biomass (wood and waste) for the production of heat and steam for industrial purposes and for space heating, mostly in homes. Biomass also includes biofuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel, used for transportation.
10 Renewable energy plays an important role in the supply of energy Renewable energy plays an important role in the supply of energy. When renewable energy sources are used, the demand for fossil fuels is reduced. Unlike fossil fuels, non-biomass renewable sources of energy (hydropower, geothermal, wind, and solar) do not directly emit greenhouse gases.Why don’t we use more renewable energy?In the past, renewable energy has generally been more expensive to produce and use than fossil fuels. Renewable resources are often located in remote areas, and it is expensive to build power lines to the cities where the electricity they produce is needed. The use of renewable sources is also limited by the fact that they are not always available — cloudy days reduce solar power; calm days reduce wind power; and droughts reduce the water available for hydropower
11 Non renewable energy About 91% of the energy consumed in the United States comes from non-renewable energy sources, which include uranium ore and the fossil fuels — coal, natural gas, and petroleumNonrenewable BasicsThe four nonrenewable energy sources used most often are:Oil and petroleum products — including gasoline, diesel fuel, and propaneNatural gas,Coal,Uranium (nuclear energy)Nonrenewable energy sources come out of the ground as liquids, gases, and solids. Crude oil (petroleum) is the only commercial nonrenewable fuel that is naturally in liquid form. Natural gas and propane are normally gases, and coal is a solid
12 Fossil Fuels Are Nonrenewable, but Not All Nonrenewable Energy Sources Are Fossil Fuels Coal, petroleum, natural gas, and propane are all considered fossil fuels because they were formed from the buried remains of plants and animals that lived millions of years ago.Uranium ore, a solid, is mined and converted to a fuel used at nuclear power plants. Uranium is not a fossil fuel, but is a nonrenewable fuel.The energy sources we use to make electricity can be renewable or non-renewable, but electricity itself is neither renewable nor non-renewable.
13 Energy carriers move energy in a useable form from one place to another. Electricity is the most well-known energy carrier. We use electricity to move the energy in coal, uranium, and other energy sources from power plants to homes and businesses. We also use electricity to move the energy in flowing water from hydropower dams to consumers. For many energy needs, it is much easier to use electricity than the energy sources themselves.Like electricity, hydrogen is an energy carrier and must be produced from another substance. Hydrogen is not currently widely used, but it has potential as an energy carrier in the future. Hydrogen can be produced from a variety of resources (water, fossil fuels, or biomass) and is a byproduct of other chemical processes.