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Principles of Design Can You Name The Principles of Design?

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Presentation on theme: "Principles of Design Can You Name The Principles of Design?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Principles of Design Can You Name The Principles of Design?
Guidelines that govern the way artists organize the elements of art. Can You Name The Principles of Design?

2 The Principles of Design
Harmony Unity Rhythm Balance Scale and Proportion Emphasis Variety Note: This list is one possible list. You will find that every book, every artist has a slightly different list of Principles.

3 Balance: Balance is concerned with arranging art elements in an artwork so no one part over powers, or seems heavier than, any other part. There are three types of balance: Symmetrical (Formal) Asymmetrical (Informal) Radial

4 Balance Symmetry is the arrangement of all identical or similar visual elements so that they are evenly distributed on either side of an imaginary vertical axis, like a mirror image. When you arrange dissimilar or unequal elements of equal weight on the page, it is called asymmetry. NEW YORK TIMES STYLE MAGAZINE: COVER NEW YORK TIMES MAGAZINES

5 Formal Balance (Symmetrical):
Occurs when one half of a work mirrors or closely resembles the other half.


7 Informal Balance (Asymmetrical):
Involves a balance of unlike objects or elements.


9 Occurs when elements are positioned around a central point.
Radial Balance: Occurs when elements are positioned around a central point.


11 Variety: Combining art elements by adding slight changes to increase visual interest.


13 Rhythm Rhythm—a sequence of visual elements at prescribed intervals—across multiple-page applications and motion graphics, is critical to developing a coherent visual flow from one page to another. The repetition of an element to make a work seem active or to suggest visual vibration. A strong and consistent repetition, a pattern of elements can set up a rhythm, similar to a beat in music, which causes the viewer’s eyes to move around the page. A strong visual rhythm aids in creating stability. Equally important is incorporating an element of variance to punctuate, accent, and create visual interest. Many factors can contribute to establishing rhythm—color, texture, figure and ground relationships, emphasis, and balance.

14 Rhythm created by duplicating shapes, colors, pattern, line & texture
Types of Rhythm Repetition - Rhythm created by duplicating shapes, colors, pattern, line & texture

15 Rhythm created by a gradual change in size or color
Gradation - Rhythm created by a gradual change in size or color

16 Radiation - Rhythm created by identical objects are balanced and repeated around a central axis. Ex. Petals on a daisy or chairs around a table

17 Opposition

18 Transition - Rhythm created by curved lines that carry your eye across a straight surface. Often subtle. Ex. An arched doorway, winding path

19 Transition Continued

20 Transition Continued

21 Transition Continued

22 Multiple Rhythms How many do you see?

23 Multiple Rhythms How many do you see?

24 Scale and Proportion In a design, scale is the size of an element or form seen in relation to other elements or forms within the format. Along with utilizing fundamental principles, one must control scale for the following reasons: Manipulating scale can lend visual variety to a composition. Scale adds contrast, dynamism, and positive tension to relationships between and among shapes and forms. Manipulation of scale can create the illusion of three-dimensional space. Proportion is the comparative size relationships of parts to one another and to the whole. Elements or parts are compared to the whole in terms of magnitude, measure, and/or quantity.

25 Proportion: The manner in which the parts of a work relate to each other and to the whole.

26 Visual Hierarchy One of the primary purposes of graphic design is to communicate information, and the principle of visual hierarchy is the primary force for organizing information and clarifying communication. To guide the viewer, the designer uses visual hierarchy, the arrangement of all graphic elements according to emphasis.


28 Emphasis Emphasis is the arrangement of visual elements according to importance, stressing some elements over others, making some superordinate (dominant) elements and subordinating other elements. Emphasis is directly related to establishing a point of focus— the focal point (the part of a design that is most emphasized or accentuated). Position, size, shape, direction, hue, value, saturation, and texture of a graphic element all contribute to making it a focal point. Once past the establishment of a focal point, a designer must further guide the viewer.

29 Emphasis: The principle of design concerned with making an element or object in an artwork stand out.


31 Emphasis There are several means to achieve emphasis: Isolation
Placement Scale Contrast Direction and pointers Diagrammatic structures Nested structures Stair structures

32 Unity There are many ways to achieve unity where all the graphic elements in a design are so interrelated that they form a greater whole all the graphic elements look as though they belong together. An ideal layout might be viewed as a composition of graphic elements so unified as a whole that it cannot be described merely as a sum of its parts. Most designers would agree viewers are able to best take in (understand and remember) a composition that is a unified whole. 

33 Unity: The combining of art elements and principles with media to create a feeling of completeness. Unity is achieved when each element of a design fits in with the overall concept of the design. It is defined by how those elements relate to the design as a whole.

34 Harmony: The principle of design concerned with combining similar art elements to achieve a similar look and feel throughout the design. . Harmony is the idea of using a predictable pattern or giving a simplistic look to an image No part of the design stands out above the other. Has little-to-no emphasis and a high sense of balance. The sense of blending and unity obtained when all elements of a design fit together to create an orderly, congruous whole. Is defined by how those same elements relate to each other.


36 Flow Elements should be arranged so that the audience is led from one element to another through the design. Flow is also called movement and is connected to the principle of rhythm. Rhythm, in part, is about a sense of movement from one element to another.

37 Principles of Design Assignment
50 points possible Requirements: ␣ 7 pictures — one for each principle Balance – 1 For Symmetrical, 1 For Asymmetrical, and 1 For Radial Rhythm Scale and Proportion Emphasis Unity (5 pts. each) 1 Ad, 1 Flyer, 1, Website, 1 Photographic Picture, 2 Paintings, and 1 you can choose ␣ For each picture write two to three sentences on why it is a good example for that principle. Total: Pictures and Sentences—35 points


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