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Chapter 5 Developing FlexibilityA Wellness Way of Life Ninth Edition Robbins/Powers/Burgess © McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Chapter 5 Objectives After reading this chapter, you will be able to:Identify benefits of and five cautions for stretching. Identify factors affecting flexibility. Define two types of flexibility. Identify four types of stretching. Identify guidelines for flexibility development. Define five principles of flexibility development. List five flexibility exercises for basic fitness. Differentiate between safe and contraindicated exercises. Identify general guidelines for identifying exercises which increase risk of injury. Explain how flexibility and muscular fitness contribute to wellness. © McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Flexibility The ability of a joint to move freely through its full range of motion. Flexibility tends to decrease with age, disuse, injury, excessive body fat, and muscle imbalances. © McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Benefits of FlexibilityDecreased aches and pains. Enhanced ability to move freely and easily. Possible decreased risk of injury. Recovery from injury. Enhanced athletic performance. Reversal of age-related decline in flexibility. Improved posture and appearance. Decreased muscle soreness after exercise. It feels good. © McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Factors Affecting FlexibilityJoint Structure Soft Tissues Inactivity Muscle Temperature Increased Age Genetics Gender Obesity Injury and Scar Tissue Neural Factors © McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Types of Flexibility Static DynamicRange of motion that is achieved through slow controlled stretching. Most commonly used and recommended type. Dynamic Range of motion that is achieved through moving a limb to its limits in a ballistic fashion. Associated with increased muscle soreness and the stretch reflex. Used more in athletic competition. Not recommended for personal fitness programs due to risk of injury. © McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Active vs. Passive Active stretching uses your own muscle forces to stretch yourself. Passive stretching uses someone or something else to assist with a stretch (body weight, gravity, strap or leverage). © McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Guidelines of Flexibility DevelopmentFrequency – 2 to 3 days a week (up to 7 days if possible). Intensity – slightly beyond the normal range of motion to the point of tension. Time – 10 to 30 second static hold. Repetitions – at least 4 sustained stretches for each muscle group. Guidelines – warm-up first, stretch to prepare for activity, cool-down stretch is most beneficial, stop at the point of discomfort, DON’T bounce, strive for muscular balance. © McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Principles for Flexibility DevelopmentProgressive overload Improvement in joint range of motion occurs when sustained stretching produces elastic and plastic elongation. Specificity Flexibility is specific to each joint, i.e., an individual could do the splits but have poor shoulder range of motion. Reversibility If a persons stops stretching, over time, range of motion will decrease. Balance Muscles can be tighter on one side of the body. Pay attention to flexibility differences and work to improve them. © McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Tips for Developing FlexibilityWarm up before stretching After warm-up, stretch to prepare for activity Stretch for flexibility during cool-down Stop at the point of tension, not pain Stretch slowly and evenly Try to consciously relax Maintain regular breathing Don’t bounce Incorporate 8-12 stretches into your program Strive for muscle balance. © McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Common Flexibility ExercisesHamstring stretch Lower back/hip flexor stretch Spinal twist Quadriceps stretch Calf/Achilles stretch Iliotibial band stretch Deltoid stretch Pectoral stretch Triceps stretch © McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Flexibility ExercisesFigure 5-1 © McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
PNF Partner-Assisted StretchesProprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) uses the nervous and muscular systems to facilitate stretching. PNF utilizes the inverse stretch relax to relax the target muscle. PNF stretch: perform a second static stretch, then contract the muscle for 6 seconds to produce fatigue, and then relax while a partner stretches your limb for seconds. For safety be sensitive to your partner’s needs and flexibility level. © McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Contraindicated ExercisesDo not hyperflex or hyperextend the knee, neck, or lower back. Do not twist the knee. Avoid holding your breath. Avoid stretching long weak muscles (abdominals) and shortening short/strong muscles (hip flexors). Avoid stretching to the point of pain. Be especially careful when using passive stretches with another person. Avoid movements that place acute compressional force on spinal discs. Avoid movements that cause joint impingements or cartilage damage. If your sport requires the violation of good mechanics make certain the muscles are as strong as possible. © McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Exercises to Avoid Avoid the following exercises:Yoga plow, knee tuck to chest, head roll, hurdler stretch, full squat, standing toe touch, ballet bar leg stretch, windmill toe touches, straight-leg sit-up, double-leg lift, swan arch, donkey kicks Do the following: Single-knee tuck to chest (hugging thigh), half-head rolls, alternative hurdler stretch, half-knee bend, lying hamstring stretch, sitting hamstring stretch, oblique abdominal curls, bent-knee ab curls, single arm/leg raises, modified donkey kicks. There are some exceptions to these guidelines for those who are well conditioned and can minimize risk. © McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Rx for Flexibility 2-3 days per weekStretch slightly beyond the normal range of motion Repeat each exercise at least 3-4 times and hold for at least seconds Static stretches to include every major joint of the body (8 to 12 stretches) © McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Rx for Action While studying or reading the morning paper, sit on the floor and stretch hamstrings. While on the phone, do calf and quadriceps stretches. If you have a desk job, take a 5-minute stretch break every hour – do ankle circles, half-head rolls, and shoulder stretches. After every hour of computer use, stretch wrists, back, and shoulders. While watching TV, stretch during commercials. © McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
What Do You Think? Which of the factors affecting flexibility best apply to you? Which of the benefits of flexibility are most important to you? How important is stretching to your training program? Do you stretch before and/or after physical activity? If not, why not? What safe flexibility exercises are you willing to perform? © McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Questions? © McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
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