Presentation on theme: "Aircraft Navigation Basics 1/C MQS. Two Schools of Air Nav Visual Flight Rules (VFR) Navigation accomplished primarily by visual reference to the."— Presentation transcript:
Two Schools of Air Nav Visual Flight Rules (VFR) Navigation accomplished primarily by visual reference to the ground (charts, DR) Requires at least 1000 ft. cloud ceiling and 3 miles of visibility (must be able to see where you’re going!) Basic pilot training/certification Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) Navigation accomplished primarily by reference to onboard instruments, electronic navigation aids, and Air Traffic Control No weather minimums More advanced pilot training/certification required
Methods of AirNav Visual (“Pilotage’) Dead Reckoning “Course Rules” (preplanned routes based on major landmarks) Charts Global Navigation Satellite System GPS GLONASS Radio Beacons Automatic Direction Finder (ADF)/Non-Directional Beacon (NDB) Very-High Frequency Omnidirectional Range (VOR) Tactical Air Navigation (TACAN) RADAR Surveillance Air Traffic Control Airborne/Shipboard RADAR
Visual Flight Rules VFR Charts Display Major landmarks/obstacles Airports and relevant information Population centers Major roads Airspace dimensions
Global Positioning System (GPS) Primary navigation method for modern aircraft Minimal error Can be used for precision landings Worldwide coverage
Non-Directional Beacon (NDB) Fixed ground station provides basic “bearing to” information Greater range but less precision than other methods Aircraft can use signal to “home” on the station
Radio Navigation VHF Omnidirectional Range (VOR) Ground station emits directional radio signals 360° around station Offers more precise course guidance Line-of-Sight (LOS) dependent Provides aircraft with a line of position to/from the station (“radial”) Multiple station fixes can be used to triangulate position
TACAN (TACtical Air Navigation) Available to military users only Ground or ship-based Provides bearing AND range information Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) onboard aircraft sends and receives signals to ground station to determine range (similar to active SONAR). Distance provided is “slant range” distance, which is not the same as distance over the ground!
RADAR Surveillance Navigation function performed by RADAR stations Ground facilities Airport towers Approach/Departure Control Air Route Traffic Control Centers (ARTCC) Ships CIC ASW/ASUC Tactical Air Controller (ASTAC) Aircraft E-2 Hawkeye E-3 AWACS Primary function is aircraft separation and airspace management Requires two-way communication Severe weather avoidance available
Signals Degradation Navigational data is typically provided simultaneously, providing redundancy and enhanced reliability. Any of the navigational aids utilized by aircraft are vulnerable to attack/jamming/compromise. In a degraded signals environment, aircraft navigation and operational performance will suffer as data inputs are reduced or eliminated altogether. Many modern weapon systems – such as the GPS guided JDAM – are similarly vulnerable to a degraded environment.
Review Two categories of aircraft navigation Visual Flight Rules (VFR) Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) Methods of aircraft navigation Dead reckoning, visual orientation, “pilotage” GNSS (GPS) Radio beacon (NDB, VOR, TACAN) RADAR Surveillance Signals degradation Navigational accuracy and operational performance are degraded when input signals are jammed or compromised