# C o n d i t i o n a l s. Conditional sentences have two parts: an if clause and a main clause. The if clause can come either first or second. When the.

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C o n d i t i o n a l s

Conditional sentences have two parts: an if clause and a main clause. The if clause can come either first or second. When the if clause is first, the two clauses are separated by a comma. If normally means "on the condition that.” If I see him, I'll give him the message. I'll give him the message if I see him. There are 4 types of conditionals: Type 2: If I went, I wouldn’t speak to him. Type 1: If I see her, I’ll give her a message. Type 3: If it had rained, I would have taken an umbrella. 1 Type 0: If the ice melts, it becomes water.

FORM : USES : EXAMPLES : IF + SUBJECT + PRESENT SIMPLE, SUBJECT + PRESENT SIMPLE. SUBJECT + PRESENT SIMPLE + IF + SUBJECT + PRESENT SIMPLE. When the result is always true. Scientific Facts. If you heat ice, it melts If I miss this bus I am late for work. 2 We can also use when instead of if

FORM : USES : EXAMPLES : IF + SUBJECT + PRESENT SIMPLE, SUBJECT + WILL / WON’T + VERB. SUBJECT + WILL / WON’T + VERB + IF + SUBJECT + PRESENT SIMPLE. * Predict what will happen given certain other facts. * We use it for things that will probably happen in the real future or for predictions. If you study hard, you’ll pass your exams. If it rains, there’ll be a lot of traffic. 3 Sometimes, we use shall, can, or may instead of will.

4 1. If you ________ (not study), you ________ (fail) the test. 2. We ________ (die) if we________ (not get) help soon! 3. If you ________ (look) in the fridge, you ________ (find) some cold drinks. 4. If there ________ (be) no oil in the engine, the car ________ (break) down. 5. I ________ (lend) you my umbrella if you ________ (not need) it. 6. The sea level ________ (rise) if the planet ________ (get) hotter. 7. If you ________ (eat) your sandwiches now, you ________ (not have) anything for lunch! 8. You________ (be) safe in an accident if you ________ (wear) your seatbelt. 9. If he ________ (save) all his money, he ________ (be able to go) on Holiday. 10. I ________ (not come) with you if you ________ (not bring) John!

FORM : USES : EXAMPLES : IF + SUBJECT + PAST SIMPLE, SUBJECT + WOULD / WOULDN’T + VERB. * To predict what would happen given an improbable or hypothetical situation. If I won the lottery, I would travel around the world. If we didn't have to work today, we could have a picnic. SUBJECT + WOULD / WOULDN’T + VERB + IF + SUBJECT + PAST SIMPLE. 5 Sometimes, we use should, could or might instead of would

6 1. What ________ (do/you) if you ________ (win) the lottery? 2. If I ________ (have) a better coat, I ________ (not feel) so cold. 3. If the weather ________ (be) worse, we ________ (not go) to the mountains. 4. Martha ________ (be) very angry if you ________ (kiss) her boyfriend. 5. He ________ (feel) better if he ________ (not smoke). 6. If Manuel ________ (leave) my sister, she ________ (be) very sad. 7. We ________ (stay) in a nice hotel if we ________ (have) more money. 8. If I ________ (not be) shy, I ________ (ask) him out. 9. If Clara ________ (study) more, she ________ (be) an architect. 10.They ________ (meet) her if she ________ (come) to the party.

FORM : USES : EXAMPLES : IF + SUBJECT + PAST PERFECT, SUBJECT + WOULD / WOULDN’T + HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE.. * It refers to past time – to things that cannot now be changed. if it hadn’t been sunny, I wouldn’t have got sunburnt. (was it sunny? Yes) (Did I get sunburnt? Yes) SUBJECT + WOULD / WOULDN’T + HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE + IF + SUBJECT + PAST PERFECT. Notice than in speech the third conditional is nearly always contracted. If I’d see him, I’d have said hello. 7 Sometimes, we use should have, could have, might have instead of would have.

8 1)If you ________ (not/be) late, we ________ (not/miss) the bus. 2)If she ________ (study) she ________ (pass) the exam. 3) If we ________ (arrive) earlier, we ________ (see) John. 4) If they ________ (go) to bed early, they ________ (not/wake) up late. 5) If he ________ (become) a musician, he ________ (record) a CD. 6) If she ________ (go) to art school, ________ (become) a painter. 7) If I ________ (be) born in a different country, I ________ (learn) to speak a different language. 8) If she ________ (go) to university, she ________ (study) French. 9) If we ________ (not/go) to the party, we ________ (not/meet) them. 10) If he ________ (not/take) the job, he ________ (go) travelling.

9 Zero and First Conditional Second and Third Conditional

Type 2: If I went, I wouldn’t speak to him. Type 1: If I see her, I’ll give her a message. Type 3: If it had rained, I would have taken an umbrella. 10 It refers to past time – to things that cannot now be changed. * To predict what would happen given an improbable or hypothetical situation. * Predict what will happen given certain other facts. * We use it for things that will probably happen in the real future or for predictions. PosibilityConditionalTime 100%ZeroAny 50%FirstFuture 10%SecondFuture 0%ThirdPast

11 1.That was a bad decision. If I ________ (be) you, I would change it as soon as possible. 2. Sunshine - at last! Imagine if the English weather was like this all the time. ________ (it/not/be) wonderful? 3. He's usually pleasant, but when he's tired he ________ (be) pretty short-tempered. That's the way he is. 4. If you ________ (not/be) so stubborn you would find it a lot easier to keep your friends. 5. Sorry I didn't call you and tell you I wasn't coming. I would have called you if I ________ (have) your number with me. 6. He says that if he ________ (not/be) so busy he would go with you to the movie tomorrow. As it is, he simply has too much work to do. 7. We ________ (miss) the bus unless you hurry. 8. If only I ________ (have) more free time. All the things I would do. All I ever do is work.

12 25 Mixed Conditionals First Conditional Second Conditional Third ConditionalMixed Conditional Perfect English Grammar. English Exercises English Exercises.

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