Presentation on theme: "Objectives Describe the efforts of African American leaders to fight discrimination. Describe the life of Mexican Americans and the challenges they faced."— Presentation transcript:
1 ObjectivesDescribe the efforts of African American leaders to fight discrimination.Describe the life of Mexican Americans and the challenges they faced.Explain why some Americans called for limits on Japanese immigration.Discuss the problems facing religious minorities.
2 Terms and PeopleBooker T. Washington – educator and prominent African American leaderW.E.B. Du Bois – African American leader who urged blacks to fight discriminationlynching – murder by a mobparochial school – school sponsored by a churchanti-Semitism – prejudice against Jews
3 What challenges faced minority groups? Though they fought for reform, most Progressives had little interest in fighting against discrimination.The turn of the century was a time of struggle for many ethnic and religious minorities.
4 Jim Crow laws enforced segregation. Landlords refused to offer equal housing.African Americans faced discrimination in both the North and the South.African Americans were restricted to the poorest jobs.Lynchings increased after the depression of 1893.4
5 Booker T. Washington was one of the most prominent African American leaders of the time. Born into slaveryHelped found the Tuskegee InstituteAdvised African Americans to learn trades and move up gradually in society5
6 W.E.B. Du Bois had a different view of how African Americans should respond to discrimination. First African American to receive a Ph.D. from HarvardAgreed with Washington on the need for educationUrged blacks to fight discrimination now
7 She called on African Americans to: Fighting against discrimination, however, was not easy. Blacks were threatened, beaten, and even lynched.The journalist Ida B. Wells used her newspaper, Free Speech, to raise awareness, despite threats against her life.She called on African Americans to:boycott segregated streetcarsboycott white-owned stores7
8 for the Advancement of Colored People In 1909, W.E.B. Du Bois joined Jane Addams and other reformers to create an organization to work for equal rights for African Americans.National Associationfor the Advancement of Colored People(NAACP)African Americans saw some successes during the Progressive Era:Sarah Walker became the first female African American millionaire.Scientist George Washington Carver discovered new uses for Southern crops.8
9 Mexican Americans were also targets of discrimination. They were denied skilled jobs and often worked as manual laborers.They were paid less than Anglo workers.Their children were forced to go to separate schools.
10 The number of Mexicans immigrating to the United States soared following a revolution in Mexico in 1910.United StatesMexicansAll levels of Mexican society immigrated, mostly to the Southwest. In time, the migration spread to the Midwest and the Rocky Mountains.Warandfamine
11 The barrio in Los Angeles was the most populous. Despite discrimination, Mexican Americans found ways to help each other.Mexican Americans created barrios to preserve their language and culture.They formed mutualistas such as the Mexican Blue Cross to help each other.The barrio in Los Angeles was the most populous.These groups collected money for insurance, legal advice, and those in need.11
12 Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 Prejudice against Asians had already stopped Chinese from immigrating to the U.S.Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882Employers on the West Coast began to hire Asian immigrants from other countries, such as Japan.More than 100,000 Japanese entered the United States in the early 1900s.
13 Many Japanese immigrants farmed land that Americans had thought was useless. Japanese farms soon became profitable.Yet Anti-Japanese feelings ran high.
14 Japanese leaders were insulted Japanese leaders were insulted. Roosevelt wanted to avoid conflict with a growing naval power.In response to public pressure, President Roosevelt reached a “Gentlemen’s Agreement” with the Japanese government.Roosevelt convinced the Japanese to stop any more workers from entering the United States.In return, the U.S. allowed the wives of Japanese immigrants already in the county to join their husbands.14
15 Members of religious minorities also suffered discrimination. Nativist groups worked to restrict Catholics and Jews from immigrating.Catholics and Jews who were not immigrants faced discrimination in jobs and housing.15
16 In response, American Catholics set up their own schools. Like other minorities, Catholic children were often discriminated against in school.In response, American Catholics set up their own schools.PublicSchoolsRun by statesParochialSchoolsRun by churches
17 Anti-Defamation League Jews also faced serious prejudice in the legal system. One man was falsely accused of murder and lynched.To combat anti-Semitism, American Jews founded an organization to promote understanding and fight prejudice.Anti-Defamation LeagueToday, many Americans continue to work against prejudice.
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