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cell (letter- number) Column (letters) Row (numbers) workbook = collection of worksheets

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Label – identification for people Constant – can be any format › Text, number, picture, hyperlink, … › Value for computer, format for people Formula – uses other cells and/or constants › Always begin with =

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=cell Why do you use it? Fundamental Principle: › Never have to change anything in two places Copy-paste › Fine if you really want a snapshot

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Once you define the formula › Can change the values as often as you like › Automatically re-computes Treats cells as variables › Defined by location, not value › Each cell can be either a constant or another formula Example › Pay = hourly rate * hours worked › When either changes, formula remains the same

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Use constants when they will not change Values that won’t change: › Computing the area of a circle Π r 2 › Computing the area of a triangle ½ base*height What about… › Minutes in an hour › Days in the year

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Operations › Simple math operators › Functions Values › Constants › Cell selection Typing Selecting Cells must have appropriate values › e.g., not text for math function

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Numbers Dates Boolean (true or false) Strings [error values] Single values Arrays Tables

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Statistical and mathematical › sum, average › minimum, maximum › floor, ceiling, round Selective › counts › if Formatting

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Want the same information for different data › Example: min, max, avg grades for each assignment Can use copy or fill Copying a formula moves it relatively

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Absolute positioning › Can lock the cell, column or row Cell: $A$1 Column: $A1 Row: A$1 › To change a reference to absolute Insert $ Use F4

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Why? › Separate input data › Presentation › Summarization › Versions How to reference between › Sheet!Cell To go between workbooks › ‘[workbook]worksheet’!cell

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Continuous cells (RANGE) › Colon (:) › Drag cursor Combining (UNION) › Comma (,) Common elements (INTERSECTION) › Space ( )

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Under Formulas tab, › Name Manager: Define Name Some default options › If the row or column has a label, will use it Can collect non-adjacent Absolute addresses

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Constants Single Cells Formulas

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Human readability Convenience if the section increases

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SymbolOperatorOrder of Precedence Colon (:)Range1st A spaceIntersection2nd Comma (,)Union3rd -Negation4th %Percent5th ^Exponentiation6th * and / Multiplication and division 7th + and - Addition and subtraction 8th &Text concatenation9th =,, =, and <>Comparison10th

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Formula Auditing › Under Formulas Functions › Stepwise evaluations › Error checking › Shows which cells use each other

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Lots of them! Explore! Wizards

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Option 1 › Separate entries and hide fields › Hide columns or use separate spreadsheets Option 2 › Build them up in pieces › Use parentheses if you can’t remember precedence Option1, followed by option 2

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