# cell (letter- number) Column (letters) Row (numbers) workbook = collection of worksheets.

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cell (letter- number) Column (letters) Row (numbers) workbook = collection of worksheets

 Label – identification for people  Constant – can be any format › Text, number, picture, hyperlink, … › Value for computer, format for people  Formula – uses other cells and/or constants › Always begin with =

 =cell  Why do you use it?  Fundamental Principle: › Never have to change anything in two places  Copy-paste › Fine if you really want a snapshot

 Once you define the formula › Can change the values as often as you like › Automatically re-computes  Treats cells as variables › Defined by location, not value › Each cell can be either a constant or another formula  Example › Pay = hourly rate * hours worked › When either changes, formula remains the same

 Use constants when they will not change  Values that won’t change: › Computing the area of a circle  Π r 2 › Computing the area of a triangle  ½ base*height  What about… › Minutes in an hour › Days in the year

 Operations › Simple math operators › Functions  Values › Constants › Cell selection  Typing  Selecting  Cells must have appropriate values › e.g., not text for math function

 Numbers  Dates  Boolean (true or false)  Strings  [error values]  Single values  Arrays  Tables

 Statistical and mathematical › sum, average › minimum, maximum › floor, ceiling, round  Selective › counts › if  Formatting

 Want the same information for different data › Example: min, max, avg grades for each assignment  Can use copy or fill  Copying a formula moves it relatively

 Absolute positioning › Can lock the cell, column or row  Cell: \$A\$1  Column: \$A1  Row: A\$1 › To change a reference to absolute  Insert \$  Use F4

 Why? › Separate input data › Presentation › Summarization › Versions  How to reference between › Sheet!Cell  To go between workbooks › ‘[workbook]worksheet’!cell

 Continuous cells (RANGE) › Colon (:) › Drag cursor  Combining (UNION) › Comma (,)  Common elements (INTERSECTION) › Space ( )

 Under Formulas tab, › Name Manager: Define Name  Some default options › If the row or column has a label, will use it  Can collect non-adjacent  Absolute addresses

 Constants  Single Cells  Formulas

 Human readability  Convenience if the section increases

SymbolOperatorOrder of Precedence Colon (:)Range1st A spaceIntersection2nd Comma (,)Union3rd -Negation4th %Percent5th ^Exponentiation6th * and / Multiplication and division 7th + and - Addition and subtraction 8th &Text concatenation9th =,, =, and <>Comparison10th

 Formula Auditing › Under Formulas  Functions › Stepwise evaluations › Error checking › Shows which cells use each other

 Lots of them!  Explore!  Wizards

 Option 1 › Separate entries and hide fields › Hide columns or use separate spreadsheets  Option 2 › Build them up in pieces › Use parentheses if you can’t remember precedence  Option1, followed by option 2

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